16 Muslim Dynasties of the World (part 1)

History records that, from the time of the prophet until now, Islam has made a stir in the world. This can be seen from the many Muslim dynasties that ruled the region in various parts of the world. Starting from the Arabian peninsula to Asia and Africa.

Even some Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world left valuable legacies in a number of regions. In addition to various important buildings, usually the Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world also left a system of government, some of which are still used today.

As Muslims in the present, of course we must know about the history of the past. Well, here’s a review of some of the Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world:

1. Umayyad (40 H/661 AD – 132 H/750 AD), one of the biggest Dynasties

The Umayyad dynasty had a power that covered the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain. The Umayyad dynasty was descended from the Umayyad bin Abdul Shams bin Abdul Manaf, who was the leader of the Quraysh tribe. The Umayyad dynasty emerged after the last khulafaur rasyidin, caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib (40 H/661 AD).

The founder of the Ummayah dynasty government was Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, a cousin of the Prophet who was a descendant of the Umayyads of the Harb family line. This dynasty was actually divided into two periods of power. The period was differentiated into Umayyad Damascus in Syria and Umayyad Cordoba in Spain.

The Umayyad rule of Damascus collapsed when Marwan II, its last leader, was assassinated by the Abbasid army in 132 H/750 AD. Damascus was then taken over by the Abbasid dynasty.

However, Abdurrahman who was the grandson of Hisham (one of the leaders of the Ummayah dynasty), escaped to Spain and founded a new Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba. The Umayah dynasty of Cordoba itself experienced a golden age during the reigns of Abdurrahman III and al-Hakam II.

Until now, various relics of the Umayyad Dynasty of Damascus can be found such as St. John’s Cathedral in Damascus which has become a mosque and also the relics of the Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, namely the Cordoba Mosque in Spain.

2. Abbasid (132/750 AD – 656 H/1258 AD), one of the biggest Dynasties

The founder of the Abbasid dynasty was Abu Abbas as-Saffah. The Abbasid dynasty stood in Damascus after the conquest of the Umayyad dynasty. The fiefdoms of the Abbasid dynasty included Iraq, Syria, the Arabian Peninsula, Uzbekistan and Eastern Egypt. His own power is divided into four periods:

  • The initial period of 132 H/750 M-232 H/847 AD),
  • Continued period (232 H/847 M-333 H/945 AD),
  • Buwaihi Period (333 H/945 AD- 447 H/1055 AD),
  • Seljuk period (447 H/1055 AD- 656 H/1258 AD).

The pattern of government in this dynasty is indeed changing according to the political, social, cultural, and ruling factors.

The Abbasid dynasty reached a golden age when it was led by as-Saffah, al-Mansur, al-Mahdi, Harun ar-Rasyid, al-Amin, al-Ma’mum, Ibragim, al-Mu’tasim, and al-Wasiq.

The destruction of the Abbasid Dynasty was due to opposition and rebellion from within the country as well as threats from outsiders, such as the Byzantines and Mongols. This was compounded after the Mongols under the leadership of Hulagu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, destroyed Baghdad.

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16 Muslim Dynasties of the World (part 2)

16 Muslim Dynasties of the World (part 3)

Some of the relics of the Abbasid Dynasty include Baitulhikmah which is a central institution of scientific studies founded by Caliph Harun ar-Rasyid and masjid al-Mutawakkil which has a spiral tower in Samarra, Iraq.

3. Idrisiyyah (172 H/789 AD – 314 H/926 AD)

The fiefdom of the Idrisiyyah Dynasty was in the Magribi. The Idrisid dynasty was founded Idris I bin Abdullah grandson of Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib, who was the first Shia dynasty. The largest Idrisiyyah leader was Yahya IV (292 H/905 AD-309 H/922 AD).

The Idrisiyyah dynasty had an important role in spreading Islamic culture and religion to the Berbers.

The destruction of the Idrisid Dynasty was due to the conquest by the Fatimid Dynasty in 374 H/985 AD.

Like the previous dynasty, the Idrisiyyah Dynasty also has relics, namely the Karawiyyin Mosque and the Andalusian Mosque which was founded in 244 H / 859 AD.

4. Aghlabiyyah (184 H/800 AD – 296 H/909 AD)

The Aghlabiyyah dynasty’s territory in Aghlabiyah included Tunisia and North Africa. Its first leader was Ibrahim I ibn al-Aglab, who was the commander of the Aghlabiyyah Khurasan. He played a role in replacing Latin with Arabic and making Islam the majority religion.

In the 9th century this dynasty managed to occupy Sicilia and most of the areas of Southern Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, as well as the coast of the Alps.

The Aghlabiyyah dynasty ended after being conquered by the Fatimid Dynasty.

Some of the relics of the Aghlabiyyah Dynasty include the Qairawan Grand Mosque and the Grand Mosque in Tunis, Tunisia.

5. Samaniyah (203 H/819 AD – 395 H/1005 AD)

The Samanid dynasty had fiefdoms in Khurasan, Iraq and Transoxania, Uzbekistan. The Samanid dynasty was founded Ahmad bin Asad bin Samankhudat, who was a Balkh nobleman from Northern Afghanistan.

The peak of its glory was in the reign of Isma’il II al-Muntasir, but it could not be maintained due to the attacks of the Qarakhan Dynasty and the Ghaznavid Dynasty.

Some relics of the Samanid Dynasty are the Mausoleum of Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari, who was a Muslim scientist.

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