16 Muslim Dynasties of the World (Part 3)

Here’s a review of some of the Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world, part 3 :

11. Seljuk (469 H/1077 AD – 706 H/1307 AD), one of Muslim Dynasties

The dynasty’s domain included Iraq, Iran, Kirman, Syria. The Seljuk dynasty is divided into five branches, namely the Iranian Seljuks, Iraqi Seljuks, Kirman Seljuks, Asia Minor Seljuks, Syrian Seljuks. The founder of this Seljuk Dynasty was the Seljuk bin Duqaq who came from the Guzz tribe of Turkestan.

However, there is one figure who is most viewed as the founder of the Seljuk Dynasty, namely Tugril Beq. He succeeded in expanding the rule of the Seljuk Dynasty and received recognition from the Abbasid Dynasty. The period of weakening of the Seljuk Dynasty itself when its leaders died and the Seljuk Dynasty was conquered by other nations.

Some relics from the Seljuk Dynasty include the Kizil Kule or also called the Red Minaret in Alanya, Southern Turkey, and also the Friday Mosque in Isfahan, Iran.

12. Ayyubiyah (569 H/1174 AD – 650 H/1252 AD)

The fiefdoms of this dynasty were in Egypt, Syria, and Yemen. The Ayyubid dynasty was founded by Salahuddin Yusuf al-Ayyubi after successfully conquering the last caliph of the Fatimid Dynasty, al-Adid. Salahuddin succeeded in conquering other Islamic areas along with the crusaders.

Salahuddin, besides being famous for his warfighting abilities, also encouraged progress in the fields of religion and education. The end of the reign of Ayyubid when the death of Malik al-Asyraf Muzaffaruddin.

One of the relics of the Ayyubid Dynasty is the Qal’ah al-Jabal Fortress in Cairo, Egypt.

13. Delhi (602 H/1206 AD – 962 H/1555 AD), one of Muslim Dynasties

The fiefdom of the Delhi Dynasty was in North India. In the first period, the Delhi Dynasty was ruled by the Mamluks for 84 years. The mamluks of senidiri are descendants of Qutbuddin Aybak, who was a slave from Turkey. Then, Khalji of Afghanistan ruled for 30 years. Followed by Tuglug who ruled for 93 years, and the Sayid Dynasty for 37 years. The last ruler of the Delhi Dynasty was Lodhi who ruled 75 years.

16 Muslim Dynasties of the World (Part 1)

There are several relics of the Delhi Dynasty such as the Kuwat al-Islam Mosque and qutub Minar in Lalkot, Delhi, India.

14. Mamluks (648 H/1250 AD – 923 H/1517 AD)

The fiefdoms of the Mamluk Dynasty were in Egypt and Syria. The Mamluk dynasty was a class of servants owned by sultans and amirs where they were given military education by their masters. The Mamluk dynasty that ruled in Egypt was divided into two, namely the Mamluk Bahri and the Mamluk Burji.

The first sultan of the Mamluk Bahri Dynasty was Izzudin Aibak. The Mamluk dynasty itself reached its golden age during the reign of Baybars. However, the dynastic rule overthrew the Burji Mamluks and taken over by overthrowing the last Mamluk Bahri sultan, as-Salih Hajii bin Sha’ban.

The first sultan to lead the Burji Mamluk Dynasty was Barquq. Egypt’s own Mamluk dynasty actually made a major contribution to Islamic history by defeating the European Christian group that attacked the Levant, Syria. The Egyptian Mamluk dynasty also succeeded in defeating the Mongols, seizing and islamicizing the Kingdom of Nubia, Ethiopia. In addition, the Mamluk Dynasty also managed to control the Islands of Cyprus and Rhodos.

Egypt’s Mamluk dynasty ended after al-Assyras Tuman Bai, who was the last sultan, was hanged by Turkish Usmani forces.

Some of the relics of the Mamluk Dynasty are the Rifai Mosque, the Qalawun Mausoleum and the Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo, Egypt.

15. Ottoman/Ottoman (699 H/1300 AD – 1341 H/1922 AD), one of most historical Dynasties

The seat of government of this dynasty was in Istanbul, Turkey. This dynasty has the most extensive fiefdom. Even his fiefdoms covered parts of Asia, Africa and Eropoa. The Ottoman dynasty was one of the three sizable Islamic dynasties of the Middle ages. The Ottoman dynasty itself became a great state after conquering the Byzantines.

The Ottoman dynasty succeeded in spreading Islam to mainland Europe and the peak of the glory of this dynasty was during the reign of Solomon I. Usmani dynasty was later weakened due to internal rebellions and lost against Europeans. The Ottoman dynasty ended up becoming a modern state in the form of a secular republic in 1924.

The founding of the Turkish republic itself was spearheaded by Mustafa Kemal Pasha Ataturk. He instilled nationalism and abolished the sultanate. Until now, various relics of the Ottoman Dynasty can still be found, such as the Sulaiman Mosque, al-Muhammadi Mosque, Abu Ayub al-Ansari Mosque, and Hagia Sopha Mosque in Istanbul.

16. Mughals (931 H/1525 AD – 1275 H/1858 AD)

This dynasty reigned supreme in India. The Mughal dynasty was founded Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur who was the first son of Umar Sheikh Mirza. The Mughal dynasty emerged when Babur took control of Punjab and brought down the Lodhi Dynasty in Delhi. The Mughal dynasty paid great attention to the development of Islam, especially in the fields of education and science.

The Mughal dynasty founded khanqah which was a pesantren which became a center of Islamic studies and science. The Mughal dynasty paid full attention to the development of civilization. Some of the relics of this dynasty are the Hawa Mahal Palace in Jaipur, the Red Fort in Delhi, the Taj Mahal in Agra, and the Badsyahi Mosque in Lahore.

The collapse of this dynasty was after the British established their rule in India, and Bahadur II who was the last sultan of the Mughal Dynasty was expelled from his court by the British rulers.

Leave a Comment