3 Islamic dynasty That Once Ruled in Sicily (italian)

Islam once prevailed in Europe, including in Sicily, a region now under the rule of the Italian state. There, traces of Islamic civilization can still be found. Several Islamic dynasties once prevailed in Sicily. Here’s a brief explanation of some of the muslim dynasties that once ruled sicily.

Sicily was under muslim rule for 260 years. The first Muslim dynasty to rule Sicily was the Aghlabid Dynasty, an Islamic dynasty that ruled in Africa east of Algeria, Tunisia and western Libya. The dynasty was affiliated with the Abbasid dynasty.

1. Aghlabiyah dynasty

This milestone in the start of the reign of the Aghlabiyah Dynasty began in 902, when Taormina was successfully conquered.

Ataullah Bogdan Kopanski in the article Islam in Italy and Its Libyan Colony (720-1992) explains, Aghlabiyah in the early 10th century not only successfully conquered Sicily, but also the Maltese Islands which is about 140 km from the southern coast of the island. Thus, the Central Mediterranean region can be said to be in the hands of the Muslim dynasty at that time.

Aghlabiyah made Palermo the seat of its government in Sicily. The central authorities in Ifriqiyah appointed regional heads to lead the local community. Kadi was also appointed to manage the affairs of the Muslims on the island.

The application of Sharia in the region does not mean the islamicization of local people, let alone the coercion of religion. Under muslim rule, the Christian and Jewish communities there remained free to embrace and practice their respective faiths.

They are only required to pay taxes or jizyahs whose amount is approximately 1 dinar per year. The payments are often made collectively, easing the group of non-Muslims who inhabit a city. As for zakat, it is charged to every Muslim.

Kopanski said that Aghlabiyah was hit by political turmoil when it was ruled by Abdullah II. In fact, the amir was later killed by his own son named Abu Mudhar. While in power, the son claimed the title ziyadatullah III. Just sitting on the throne, he sentenced all his brothers and uncles to death.

Ziyadatullah III faced various domestic turmoil. The coup attempt mainly came from the Ismaili Shia movement led by Abu Abdullah asy-Shi’ah–later an adviser to Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, the founder of the Egypt-based Fathimid Shia Dynasty.

In February 909, Abu Abdullah staged a massive uprising. In fact, the capital of Aghlabiyah at that time, Raqqada, could be surrounded by troops from various quarters. When they were able to move into the palace, Ziyadatullah III apparently fled to the east first.

ALSO READ : Development Of Islamic Science Of Abbasid Dynasty

The Amir spurred his horse past Egypt with the aim of reaching Baghdad to ask the Abbasid Caliph to restore his position. Until the end of his life in 911 AD, the request was not fulfilled by the Sunni caliph.

In March 909, the Aghlabid Dynasty was torn down by the Ismaili Shia movement.

2. Fathimid

In 909, Abu Abdullah, the leader of the uprising against the Aghlabid Dynasty, joined his disciple, Abdullah al-Mahdi, in Egypt. From then on, a new Shia dynasty was established in the Land of the Pyramids, the Fathimids.

Automatically, the territories previously controlled by Aghlabiyah belonged to the Fathimid Dynasty. That’s also the case with the largest island in the Mediterranean.

The Shiite regime’s rule in Sicily lasted for two decades. Indeed, the resistance had rolled in, as Ibn Qurhub did. However, the former Tripoli regional chief for Aghlabiyah was arrested and executed.

3. Kalbiyah Dynasty

In 948 AD, fathimid king Ismail al-Manshur appointed Hasan ibn Ali of bani Kalbi as the leader of Sicily. After his death, the island was led by his own son, Abu al-Qasim Ali. Thus a de facto new dynasty was formed there, namely Kalbiyah or often also called the Emirate of Sicily.

Abu al-Qasim aka Bolkasimos died in the war against the forces of the German emperor, Otto II, in Crotone, Italy. His successors sought to maintain domestic stability by increasing military capacity at the border and reducing internal political conflicts. As a result, in the era of amir Ja’far (983-985) and Yusuf al-Kalbi (990-998) the Emirate of Sicily reached a golden age.

The Kalbiyah dynasty, which became the ruler of the island of Sicily, ruled with high tolerance so that the condition of Sicily, which had heated up due to ethnic conflicts, could return to stability.

Diverse tribes, and ethnicities, such as Sicilians, Arabs, Jews, Barbarians, Persians, Tartars, and Negroes can blend in tolerance and harmony. There was no massacre of any ethnicity or religion. Residents of different religions are protected, and respected for their freedom in carrying out worship activities.

The rule of the Muslims in Sicily itself ended in 1061 AD. The collapse of the Kalbiyah regime was caused by civil war, and the interference of the Byzantine empire, which helped the Normans’ conquest of the Sicilian archipelago. Since then, islamic domination has disappeared from the Sicilian earth. Even so, the influence and civilization it inherited can still be witnessed today.

Leave a Comment