Prophet are derived from the root riddah or irtidad which means return. The term apostate or characteristic of apostates can also be interpreted as that a person has come out of Islam in the form of intentions, words, or deeds that cause a person to become infidel or not religious at all.
At the beginning of Islamic history, the term riddah was associated with the return of several Arab tribes, other than Quraysh and Saqif, from Islam to the belief long after the death of the Prophet Muhammad shalallahu alaihi wasallam.
According to the Islamic Encyclopedia published by Ichtiar Baroe Van Hoeve, some of the actions that characterize apostates include denial of the creator, the elimination of the Prophet of Allah SWT, and the prohibition of deeds agreed haram and prohibition of deeds agreed halal.
4 Characteristics of The Prophet
Prophet can be interpreted as a nullity of the religious value of the actions of the person concerned. Returning to disbelief after faith means the disconnection with Allah SWT.
1. The characteristic of the first apostate is to associate Allah SWT with anything.
2. The characteristic of the second apostate is to claim to be a prophet or believe in a person who claims to be a prophet.
3. The characteristic of the third apostate is to do deeds such as mocking Allah SWT, or His Apostles, or His books.
The scholars have reached an agreement that the person who insults Allah SWT, or denounces, scolds, discredits Him as an apostate and out of Islam. Even if it’s just a joke, or a joke. [Ibn Qudaamah, al-Mughni, vol. 8 p. 565]
The basic principle is the statement of Allah SWT in the Quran:
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ قُلْ أَبِاللّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِؤُونَ لاَ تَعْتَذِرُواْ قَدْ كَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ إِن نَّعْفُ عَن طَآئِفَةٍ مِّنكُمْ نُعَذِّبْ طَآئِفَةً بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ مُجْرِمِينَ
If you ask them, they will surely say, “We were only joking and playing.” Say: “What is it with Allah, His signs and His Messenger that you are mocking?”
4. The characteristic of the fourth apostate is to establish the existence of angels, jinn and the hereafter such as Paradise, Hell, Reckoning, Mizaan (scales) and shirath (titian road), and so on.
Therefore, as a Muslim, we must always be careful in speaking, doing deeds, or beliefs that can plunge us into the valleys and ravines of disbelief.
Whoever does this, let him repent from now on, before the door of repentance closes when the Hour has come. And repentance is not enough only by beristighfar, but also must renew the creed.
According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, the validity of apostasy is determined by two things. First, be sized. It is not lawful to apostasy a lunatic or a child who has not yet made a name. Second, having freedom and freedom of action and making choices.
A person who is forced to apostatize, while his heart remains in a state of faith, cannot be called apostate. The apostate, according to jurisprudence, loses the right to protection of his soul. In addition, the apostate also dies and loses his civil rights, his possessions, and annulled marriage.
The scholars determined that if the person converts to Islam again, all his lost rights will be restored. In terms of inheritance, in general apostates cannot inherit from any party, either from muslims or infidels, because they have no guardian and are not recognized by Islam.
Some scholars argue that apostasy is a particular barrier to inheritance, not religious differences. According to the jumhur (agreement) of the scholars, the property of the apostates cannot be inherited. However, some of Abu Haneefah’s followers thought his property could be inherited.
Wealth, according to Abu Hanifah, is what is obtained in Islam, while what is gained in apostasy is a spoil for the state’s treasures.
Meanwhile, the person who died in apostasy, should not be asked for forgiveness for him even though we love him so much.
Allah SWt said:
مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِىِّ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَن يَسْتَغْفِرُوا۟ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوٓا۟ أُو۟لِى قُرْبَىٰ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلْجَحِيمِ
It is not for the Prophet and the believers to ask forgiveness of the polytheists, even though they are near relatives, after it has been made clear to them that the polytheists are the inhabitants of Hell.” (At-Taubah Verse 113).
Those are some characteristics of Prophet in Islam. May Allah SWT always bestow his guidance and blessings on us to always stand on the true religion of Islam