In carrying out his prophetic mission, the Prophet (peace be upon him) often received opposition from the disbelievers. Even as Islam began to flourish, the infidels continued to try to destroy and divide the unity of Muslims.
In the history of the development of Islam, the Prophet had been involved several times and took to the battlefield to ensbarfy the infidels who tried to destroy the Muslims. This makes some people today often assume that the Prophet is someone who really likes to use violent means to carry out his mission.
In addition, the rise of acts of terrorism committed by a handful of people who claim to be Muslims and in the name of jihad are actually people who damage the image of Islam in the eyes of the world.
The true islam teaches peace. The jihadi war in the time of the Prophet was carried out for reasons because they (the infidels) always tried to fight the Muslims.
Speaking of war in the days of the development of Islam, there are 5 major wars that have been experienced by Muslims. Among them are:
Battle of Badr
The Battle of Badr was the first major battle between Muslims and their enemies. At that time, the Muslims of 313 men fought against the Quraysh army of Mecca which numbered 1,000 men.
This war took place on March 17, 624 AD or 17 Ramadan 2 H. After an all-out battle of about two hours, Muslim forces destroyed the defense line of the Quraysh army which then retreated in chaos.
To the early Muslims, this battle was significant because it was the first evidence that they had a real chance of defeating their enemies in Mecca. Mecca was then one of the richest and strongest cities in the Arabian Peninsula in the jahiliyah era.
The victory of the Muslims also showed other Arab tribes that a new power had risen in Arabia, and strengthened Muhammad’s authority as a leader over the various factions of medina’s previously frequently warring societies.
Various Arab tribes began to convert to Islam and establish communion with the Muslims in Medina; Thus, the expansion of the Islamic religion began.
The Battle of Uhud was fought between the Muslims and the infidel Quraysh on March 22, 625 AD (7 Shawwal 3 AD). The battle took place about a year after the Battle of Badr.
The Army of Islam numbered 700 people while the infidel army numbered 3,000 people. The Army of Islam was led directly by the Prophet while the infidel army was led by Abu Sufyan.
It is called the Battle of Uhud because it takes place near uhud hill which is located 4 miles from the Prophet’s Mosque and has an altitude of 1000 feet from ground level with a length of 5 miles.
At that time, Muslims almost lost because of the undisciplined troops who were on a hill tempted by the spoils of war so they left their post spearheaded by Abdullah bin Ubay.
It was used by the infidel armies to repulse the Muslims. However, Allah gave His help to the Muslims. The Muslims won.
The Battle of Mu’tah was a war between the Muslims and the armies of the Roman empire. The war took place in 629 AD or 5 Jumadil Awal 8 Hijri near the village of Mu’tah, east of the Jordan and Al Karak Rivers.
The Mu’tah War was a prelude and an opening road to conquering the Christian lands. The trigger of the Mu’tah war was the assassination of the Prophet’s messenger named al-Harith bin Umair who was ordered to deliver a letter to the leader of Bashra.
Al-Harith was intercepted by Shurahbil bin Amr, a governor of the Balqa region of Sham, captured and beheaded. For this war, the Prophet prepared an army of three thousand soldiers. This was the largest Islamic army at that time.
They moved northwards and rested in Mu’an. It was then that they obtained information that Heraclius had been in one part of Balqa with a force of about a hundred thousand Roman soldiers.
They even got help from the troops of Lakhm, Judzam, Balqin and Bahra approximately a hundred thousand soldiers. So their total strength was two hundred thousand soldiers.
The Battle of Khandaq took place in the month of Shawwal in the year 5 Hijri or in 627 AD, the siege of Medina was spearheaded by a joint force between the infidel Quraysh of Makkah and the Jews of the Bani Nadir (al-ahzaab). The Siege of Medina began on March 31, 627 AD and ended after 27 days.
Twenty Jewish leaders of the Children of Nadhir came to Makkah to provoke the infidels to unite to crush the Muslims. The Jewish leaders of the Children of Nadhir also went to the Banu Ghathafan and invited them to do what they called on the Quraysh.
Then they went to the Arabs around Makkah to do the same. All these groups finally agreed to join and finish off the Muslims in Medina to their roots.
The total number of Ahzab (allied) troops was about ten thousand soldiers. The number mentioned in the book of sirah is more than the number of people living in Medina as a whole, including women, children, youth and the elderly.
Faced with this enormous force, at the ideas of Salman al-Farisi, the Muslims used a strategy of digging trenches to block the enemy forces from entering the Medina region.
Battle of Tabuk
The Tabuk War, or Tabuk Expedition, was an expedition by Muslims led by Muhammad in 630 AD or 9 H, to Tabuk, which is now located in northwestern Saudi Arabia.
Rome had the most military power at the time. The Battle of Tabuk was a continuation of the Mu’tah war. The Muslims heard of the massive preparations made by the Roman army and the king of Ghassan.
The information about the number of troops gathered was about forty thousand personnel. The situation is getting more critical, because of the dry atmosphere. Muslims are in the midst of hardship and food shortages.
To protect the Muslims in Medina, Muhammad decided to take preventive action, and prepare an army. This is attributed to the famine in the Arab lands and the lack of muslim cash.
However, Muhammad managed to assemble an army of 30,000 men, the largest number of troops ever owned by Muslims.
After arriving at Tabuk, the Muslims found no Byzantine or allied forces. According to Muslim sources, they withdrew north after hearing of the arrival of Muhammad’s forces.
However, no non-Muslim sources have confirmed this. The Muslim army was in Tabuk for 10 days. This expedition was used by Muhammad to visit the kabilah around Tabuk.
As a result, many Arabs have since ceased to adhere to the Byzantine Empire, and sided with Muhammad and the Muslims.
Muhammad also managed to collect taxes from the kabilah-kabilah. On returning from Tabuk, Muhammad’s entourage was visited by Christian pastors in the Sinai Valley.
Muhammad discussed with them, and there was a treaty similar to the Charter of Medina for the Jews. This charter contains peace between Muslims and Christians in the area.
Muhammad finally returned to Medina after 30 days of leaving him. Neither The Muslims nor the Byzantine Empire suffered any casualties from this event, as the battle never took place.