Prophet Muhammad had seven children. From his first wife, Siti Khadijah, the Prophet had six children. Another child was Mariyah al-Qibthiyah, his 11th wife.
Imam an-Nawawi rahimahullah said, “The Prophet had three sons; The first named Qasim, his name became the chew of the Prophet (Abul Qashim). Qashim was born before prophethood and died at the age of 2.
The second named Abdullah, also called ath-Thayyib or ath-Tahir because it was born after prophethood. The third son, Ibrahim, was born in Medina in 8 AD and died at the age of 17 or 18 months.
His daughter of four was named Zainab who married Abu al-Ash bin al-Rabi’, nephew of the Prophet from khadijah, then named Fatimah married Ali bin Abi Talib, then named Ruqayyah and Um Qultsum married Uthman bin Affan.
Quoted from the History Book of the Prophet صلى الله عليي وسلم by al-Hafidz Abdul Ghani bin Abdul Wahid al-Maqdisy, With details of the names of the sons of the Prophet Muhammad’s daughters صلى اللل عليي وسلم as follows:
Names of the Sons of the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليي وسلم
1. Al-Qasim, Prophet’s sons
He was born in Makkah before Muhammad was appointed prophet. Al-Qasim died in Mecca at the age of two. But according to Qatadah, Al Qasim died when he was able to walk.
2. Abdullah, Prophet’s sons
It is also named at-Thayyib (the good) and at-Thahir (the holy one) because he was born after Islam. There are opinions that say that at-Thayyib and at-Thahir are other sons of the Prophet , but the first opinion is the right one.
3. Ibrahim, Prophet’s sons
He was born and died in Medina in the tenth year of Hijri at the age of seventeen or eighteen months.
Names of the Daughters of the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليي وسلم :
He married Abu Al-Ash bin Rabi‟ bin Abdul Uzza bin Abdul Shams zainab’s cousin, because his mother was Hala bint Khuwailid (brother of Khadijah bint Khuwailid).
Zainab had a son named Ali who died as a child and Umamah who was carried by the Prophet صلى الله عليي وسلم during prayer and after adulthood married Ali ibn Abi Talib after Fatimah died.
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2. Fatimah az-Zahra
Fatimah was born in Makkah on 20 Jumadil Akhir, 18 years before the Prophet Muhammad’s hijrah. She was the youngest daughter of the Prophet Muhammad.
Fatimah married Ali ibn Abi Talib.
From this marriage Fatimah gave birth to 6 children (3 sons and 3 daughters). Narrated Aisha RA, ‘Fatimah died in the month of Ramadan in the 11th year of Hijri, or six months after the Prophet Muhammad صلى اللل عليي وسلم died.
Ruqayyah married Ustman bin Affan. He died in Ustman’s lap. Ruqayyah had a son named Abdullah so Uthman was called by the chew of Abu Abdullah.
4. Um Kultsum
He was born six years before Muhammad was appointed Prophet. Um Kultsum was then married to Utbah bin Abu Lahab, but was then divorced before she touched him. After that, he married Uthman bin Affan in 3 A.H.