In addition to the first university, and even toothbrushes, there are many surprising Muslim inventions that shape our lives in the world to this day.
More than twelve hundred years ago, hardworking people had struggled to stay awake without this stimulant, until a pack of curious goats and their wary masters. An Arab named Khalid, discovers a simple but life-changing substance in the world.
As his goats grazed on the slopes of Ethiopia, he noticed that they became more alive and vibrant after eating certain seeds. Instead of just eating the raw seeds, he picked them up and boiled them to make “al-qahwa”.
2. Clock, Found by a Muslim
A skilled man named Ismail al-Jazari from Diyarbakir in Southeastern Turkey was a pious Muslim and trained technician who gave birth to the concept of automatic machines. By 1206, al-Jazari had made many clocks of various shapes and sizes.
Ismail al-Jazari from Diyarbakir in Southeastern Turkey was a pious Muslim and trained technician who gave birth to the concept of automatic machines.
Just as we need to know the time to organize our lives, so did Muslims more than seven hundred years ago. Al-Jazari adheres to the old Muslim tradition of watchmaking. They know the importance of knowing the time so that it can be put to good use through good deeds: to know when to pray at the right time each day and to announce the adhan in the mosque.
3. Hygiene Tools
Muslim beliefs are based on purity and cleanliness, both in physical and spiritual form. In the Islamic world of the 10th century, the products found in bathroom cabinets and hygiene practices could compete with the products we have today.
In the 13th century, the same technician, al-Jazari, wrote a book describing mechanical devices, including “wudhu” machines. This machine can be moved easily, and carried in front of guests. Guests will then knock the head of the machine and the water will come out in eight short bursts, providing enough water for ablution. This method also saves water.
Muslims want to be completely clean and not just water themselves with water, so they make soap by mixing oil (usually olive oil) with “al-qali”, a salt-like substance. It is then boiled to get the mixture right, allowed to harden and used in the hammam, the bathing place.
Al-Kindi also wrote a book on perfume entitled “The Book of Perfume Chemistry and Distillation”. He was known not only as a philosopher, but also as a pharmacist, ophthalmologist, physicist, mathematician, geographer, astronomer and chemist.
His book contains more than a hundred recipes for perfumes, ointments, and aromatic water. The centuries-old tradition of perfume making was all made possible by Muslim chemists and their methods of distillation: they distilled plants and flowers and made perfumes and ingredients for therapeutic pharmacies.
4. University, Found by a Muslim
The search for knowledge is very close to the hearts of Muslims. In the Qur’an, Muslims are encouraged to continue to seek knowledge, observe and reflect.
So Fatima al-Fihri, a pious young woman, wanted to give the Fez community a center of learning. Like several great mosques, al-Qarawiyin in Fez quickly developed into a place of religious teaching and political discussion.
Gradually he expanded his education to all subjects, especially the natural sciences, and hence earned his name as one of the first universities in history.
In addition to astronomy, there is the study of the Qur’an and theology, law, rhetoric, prose and verse writing, logic, arithmetic, geography and medicine. There are also grammar courses, Islamic history, and elements of chemistry and mathematics.
READ MORE : Pioneer Of Islamic University Is A Muslimah
Its wide variety of topics and high teaching quality attracts students and students from all over the world. Still operating nearly 1,200 years later, Hassani said she hopes the center will remind people that learning is at the core of islamic traditions and that al-Firhi’s story will inspire young Muslim women around the world today.
5. Aircraft, Found by a Muslim
Abbas ibn Firnas was the first person to really try to make a flying machine and he managed to fly. In the 9th century he designed winged equipment that roughly resembled a bird costume.
In his most famous experiment, near Cordoba in Spain, Firnas flew upwards for a few moments, before falling to the ground and breaking part of his back. Its design will no doubt be the inspiration for renowned Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci some six hundred years later.
6. Surgical Equipment
If we travel back to the 10th century, we could see a surgeon named Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbad al-Zahrawi, a man known in the West as Abulcasis. He wrote al-Tadrif, his medical encyclopedia which included a treatise entitled “On Surgery”.
It has a surprising collection of more than two hundred surgical tools. Using equipment for surgery is a revolutionary concept because it allows science to go from speculative to experimental.
The findings of a Muslim surgeon named Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbad al-Zahrawi, a man known in the West as Abulcasis
This is the first treatise in the history of medicine to illustrate the use of surgical equipment. In fact, the design of the surgical equipment is so accurate that it has undergone little change in a millennium. It is this illustration that laid the foundation for operations in Europe.
7 Map, Found by a Muslim
Maps have helped people to find their travel routes for 3,500 years, the earliest of which is clay board maps. The introduction of paper was a huge leap forward in the art of map making.
Modern technology uses satellite systems and other receiving devices to calculate positions on earth. Back in history, maps are made from the testimony of travelers and pilgrims.
Muslims began to explore in the 7th century. They leave their place of origin to trade and for religious reasons, to explore the world in which they live.
They walk through routes, sometimes just gathering knowledge about new places, and when they return they shed an explanation of how they reached the place and the people and sights they encountered. First, it’s word of mouth, but with the introduction of paper in Baghdad in the 8th century, the first maps and travel guides can be created.
8. Music, Found by a Muslim
Did 20th-century artists and singers know that most of their work was in the hands of Muslims from the 9th century? These artists, al-Kindi in particular, used musical notation: a system of music writing.
They also named musical scale tones after syllables, not letters, called solmization. These syllables form the basic scale in music today and we are all familiar with do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti.
The Arabic alphabet for this scale is Dal, Ra, Mim, Fa, Sad, Lam, Sin. The phonetic similarities between today’s scale and the Arabic alphabet used in the 9th century are astounding. In addition, Muslims also develop musical instruments.
The word “algebra” comes from the title of the famous Persian mathematician’s 9th-century treatise “Kitab al-Jabr Wal Mugabala” which roughly translates to “Book of Reasoning and Balancing”. Al-Khawarizmi introduced the beginnings of algebra.
It’s important to understand how important this new idea is. In fact, it was a revolutionary step of the Greek mathematical concept, which was essentially based on geometry. The same mathematician, Al-Khwarizmi, was also the first to introduce the concept of raising a number to a rank.
Al-Khawarizmi’s books were translated into Latin in Europe in the 1000s and 1100s, where he was known as Algoritmi.
In his monumental book, Al-Kitāb al-Mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala (English: The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), he established an important foundation of algebraic equations. The title of the book itself contains the word “al-jabr” which means “completion”, where does the Latin word algebra come from?
In his book, al-Khawarizmi explains how to use algebraic equations with unknown variables to solve problems in society, such as zakat calculations and inheritance.
A unique aspect of his reasoning for developing algebra was his desire to make calculations established by Islamic law (zakat and inheritance, for example), easier in a world where there were no calculators and computers at the time.
Al-Khawarizmi’s books were translated into Latin in Europe in the 1000s and 1100s, where he was known as Algoritmi (and the word Alogaritma was based on his name and work). Without algebra and algorithms, we wouldn’t have rejected the encryption that computers were born with.