Researchers from the University of Bahrain, Muhammad al-Kuhiji revealed that in the era of His Majesty the Prophet Muhammad saw, there were four Currency that are often used by Arabs. These include the Currency of the Byzantine-Roman, Ottoman, Himyar-Yemeni, and Habasyah kingdoms.
These four kingdoms issued Currency in the form of gold and silver coins. The Byzantine gold coins with the image of King Heraclius were the ones widely held and used at that time.
While the Sasaniyah silver coins depicting King Khosrawi occupied the second position in their use in the era of jahiliyah and the time of His Majesty the Prophet (peace be upon him). This is because the two kingdoms are the largest and have mutual influence on the surrounding areas.
The Arabs both in Mecca and Medina were two civilizations consisting of tribes. Not a kingdom, where people like to trade in the land of Sham and Yemen. From there the Arabs scavenged windfalls, getting valuable coins of gold-silver which came to be known as dinars and dirhams.
Dinar and Dirham
The word “dinar” itself is allegedly not the original Arabic word, because most Arabic pronunciations consist of three letters only while dinars and dirhams consist of four letters. Dinar from the Greek word “Dinarius” while Dirham is also from the word “Dirkhomah”.
Furthermore Muhammad al-Kuhiji said that in the era of Caliph Umar ibn Khattab ra. Muslims were ordered to order gold into gold dinar coins with the Arabic inscriptions “Allah Akbar”, “Alhamdulillah”, and “Subhanallah”.
This was followed by Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan of the Umayyad Dynasty. Then his successor, Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz also produced silver dirham coins.
Thus we can understand that the currency used as a means of peace maliyah is a product of culture and civilization. There is not a single Hadith of The Prophet (peace be upon him) who ordered the use of gold-silver coins as a means of transaction by denying others.
Dinar and Dirham Currency Are Not Islamic Sharia Products
It is not true to say that the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is to use gold-silver coins as a means of transaction.
If it was sunnah, it certainly would not arise from Caliph Umar ibn Khattab ra. an opinion to make a medium of exchange (money) from copper or camel skin. Does he, as a disciple and friend of the Prophet, not know? Don’t understand the teachings of the Prophet?
Indeed, gold-silver is very stable and good as a measuring point for exchanging goods. But this is not a product of Islamic sharia because before his prophet (peace be upon him), even the gold-silver coins were already used by the kingdoms around Jahiliyah Arabia.
It has become sunnatullah that the good will be replaced with a better one. Gold-silver coins in the past era is good but there is already something better now, namely giral money and e-money.
This cannot be said to be sunnah. As traveling a trade out of town using camels, do we want to do business trips in the present era by riding camels on the grounds of the Sunnah of the Prophet? Make a house with a roof with a palm of date palms because of the Sunnah of the Prophet? Let’s understand the text of Hadith and Verse in context so that we do not misunderstand