Development Of Islam In The World

The Development of Islam In Continental Europe: from Spain to France

The entry of Islam into continental Europe began with the conquest of the Iberian peninsula in the early eighth century. The Region of Iberia consists of Andalusia (Spain), Portugal, Andora, Gibraltar, and a small part of France.

This conquest of Iberian territory was carried out during the Umayyad dynasty. This small area of Europe had a taste of the golden age of Islam. However, in the 15th century, the Iberian peninsula was taken over again through the Crusades. Since then, Muslims have been expelled from the Iberian region. Nevertheless, Islamic teachings have left a significant footprint in parts of Europe.

In Oliver Leaman and Kecia Ali’s Book of Islam: The Key Concepts (2007), the Muslim population of continental Europe is relatively large, even in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania, Islam is the majority religion embraced by its inhabitants.

The Development of Islam in Continental Europe

Islam in Continental Europe
Islam in Continental Europe

1. Andalusia

The conquest of Andalusia is very famous for the heroic story of Tariq ibn Ziyad. Despite his doubts, Tariq reportedly encouraged his soldiers by burning their warships. As a result, the Muslim soldiers fought vigorously and managed to capture Andalusia. Since then, Islam’s tangent with continental Europe began intensely.

What’s more, after the fall of the Umayyad dynasty in the Middle East, one of the Umayyad descendants, Abdur Rahman fled to Andalusia. In Andalusia, Abdur Rahman founded the Umayyad dynasty which lasted for 265 years, from 756-1065 AD.

In the heyday of Islam in Andalusia, many prominent scientists were born, such as Abdur Rabbi, Ali ibn Hazm, Al-Khatib, Ibn Khaldun, Al-Bakri, Al-Idrisi, Ibn Rusyd, Ibn Batuta, and others. At that time, Andalusia became the center of civilization and culture. Many students from all over the world study in Granada, Cordova, Seville, and Toledo.

2. Russia

Like Andalusia, Russian territory also fell to Muslims under the rule of the Umayyad dynasty. Commander Qutaibah bin Muslim managed to break into the Russian defenses during the caliphate Walid bin Abdul Malik.

After that, many Russians welcomed Islamic preaching. From 86-91 AH, all russian territory was controlled by Islam, even its influence reached the Chinese border. The legacy of Qutaibah bin Muslim that can be seen until now is Jami Qutaibah Mosque in Bukhara.

Qutaibah ibn Muslim was also the first to allow the translation of the Qur’an into the local language. Until now, the number of Muslim population in Russia is relatively large. It is estimated that as many as 18 percent of its total population or 25 million Russians are Muslims. Given its rapid development, predicted by 2050, Russia will become the largest Islamic country on the European continent.

3. English

There are a number of Islamic organisations in the UK that help the Muslim population there. For example, the Organization of The Islamic Council of Europe is located in the United Kingdom. The organization serves as europe’s cultural watchdog.

There is also the Union of Moslem Organization, as well as the Islamic Fondation and Moslem Institute which is engaged in research. Muslims in the UK number about 1.5 million people.

Islam is the second most populous religion, after Christianity. Apart from the British population, most of the Muslims are of Arab, Turkish, Egyptian, Cyprus, Malaysian descent, etc.

In 1985, in Stradford, England was also elected the first muslim mayor, Muhammad Ajeeb. This indicates that the UK is a fairly tolerant religion towards Islam.

4. French

Muslims in France are classified as many, even the second most populous religion after Christianity. Aside from the natives of France, most Muslims are immigrants from West Africa, the Middle East, and so on.

Today, the Muslim population in France is about three to four million people, contributing to 5.6% of france’s total population.

There has been much controversy about the situation in France, from the case of the display of caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad in Charlie Hebdo magazine, terrorism cases, to Islamic phobias.

Recently, the French Islamic organization Le Conseil Fran├žais du Culte Musulman (CFCM) signed a Charter of Republican Values that rejected Islamic radicalization to conform its teachings to French secular values.

Muslim women in France also gain discrimination through a ban on wearing veils and burqas in public places.

The Development of Islam in Africa: Ethiopia, Egypt to West Africa

Since the prophetic era of Muhammad SAW, african regions have been in contact with Islam. Before the second emigration to Yathrib (Medina), Muslims had first emigrated to Habaksyah (Ethiopia), which belongs to the african region. In Islam: The Key Concepts (2007), Oliver Leaman and Kecia Ali write that Islam’s entry into the African continent was influenced by the massive expansion during the Rasyidin Caliphate and umayyad dynasty. Since then, until now, Islam is the majority religion embraced by the population on the African continent.

The development of Islam in Africa In the description “Islamic Mercy for the Universe” published by the Ministry of Education and Culture, it is explained about the development of Islam in several regions on the African continent as follows:

Islam in Africa
Islam in Africa

1. Habaksyah (Ethiopia)

Islam first flourished in Habaksyah beginning in Rajab’s fifth prophetic year. At that time, Muslims in Makkah continued to be persecuted and persecuted by the Kafir Quraysh.

Because he could not bear to see Muslims suffer, The Prophet Muhammad SAW one day gathered the Muslims and said:

“If you go out to emigrate to the land of Habaksyah is better, because there is a king in his territory no one is persecuted until Allah SWT makes a time of joy and breadth to you, than the situation as it is today.”

Thanks to the direction of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, Muslims in Makkah made the first emigration to Habaksyah, Africa. King Habaksyah then granted asylum with open arms.

Since then, Islam has grown and developed in Habaksyah.

2. Egypt

Islamic expansion reached Egypt during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Khattab. At that time, Egypt was under Byzantine (Eastern Roman) rule.

The disintegration of the Sect and the Christian sect, as well as its inefficient system of government in Egyptian territory benefited Muslims. In 21 AH or 641 AD, Islamic forces commanded by Commander Amr bin Ash were able to repel the Roman army’s defenses.

One by one the territory of Egypt fell into the hands of Muslims, ranging from Peluse, Heliopolis, to Alexandria (Alexandria)

Read also about ” This Is Secret Of Egyptian Hieroglyphs

3. North Africa

Continuing the expansion of Umar ibn Khattab, North Africa fell to Islam during the reign of Caliph Uthman ibn Affan.

In 644 AD, barca territory in North Africa was occupied by Islamic forces, and Tripoli also surrendered.

Twenty years later, almost all of North Africa, from Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean, was controlled by Muslims. Islamic rule then flourished during the Umayyad dynasty.

Under the direction of governor Musa bin Nusair, Islam could even penetrate the spanish fortress (Andalusia).

4. West Africa

The influx of Islam in North Africa had a major influence on its spread in West Africa.

Commercial routes from North Africa to West Africa allowed traders to freely preach Islam to the people of West Africa, especially in the Sudanese kingdom.

When many officials in the Sudanese kingdom converted to Islam, rulers in the kingdom’s subordinate territories also converted to Islam, such as the rulers of Kawkaw, Takrur, Ghana, and Bornu in the 10th and 11th centuries.

Islam then became a religion among the ruling elite and merchants, which then had a major effect on the subsequent spread to the people of West Africa.

The Development of Islam in Asia: from India to Indonesia

The development of Islam in the Asian continent has a long history, ranging from India, China, to Indonesia. Today, the world’s largest Muslim population is located in Asia and Southeast Asia.

The first position was occupied by Indonesia with more than 200 million Muslim population, followed by India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and so on.

This huge population capital shows the social dynamics and spread of Islam that varies between countries in the Asian continent.

The Development of Islam in Asia

Islam in Asia
Islam in Asia

1. India

In the past, Islam flourished in India because there were Kingdoms with Islamic accents. Thanks to these rulers or kings, many of his people also converted to Islam.

For example, the Islamic kingdoms in India are sabaktakin kingdom, Ghazi kingdom, Mamalik kingdom, Kilji descent kingdom, Taglak kingdom, and so on.

One of the famous relics of the Islamic kingdom is the taj mahal menumen in Agra. The monument was built by Shah Jihan of taglak kingdom. The Taj Mahal is one of the wonders of the world in history.

Despite its large population, Muslims in India are still a minority. However, according to pew Research Center predictions, by 2060, Muslims in India will increase rapidly to reach the first position as the country with the largest Muslim population in the world.

2. Pakistan

Pakistan is a country that secedes from India. Islam flourished in Pakistan, especially in the 13th to 15th centuries.

At its peak, in the 1940s, Pakistan could be categorized as an Islamic state. The draft Law of Pakistan was submitted to the Muslim League, which decided that the rules of its country must be in accordance with the Koran and hadith.

Despite the polemic, Pakistan managed to issue a strong rule of law. In fact, in the 1950s, the country’s name was “Islamic Republic of Pakistan”.

However, in 1962, the word “Islam” was omitted, which was later replaced by the establishment of two institutions, the Advisory Council of Islamic Ideology and the Islamic Research Institute.

3. Afghanistan

Today, nearly 99 percent of Afghans are Muslim. All aspects of the life of its inhabitants are also influenced by the teachings of Islam.

Initially, Islam first entered Afghanistan because of the expansion by caliph Umar ibn Khattab. Later, during the reign of Uthman ibn Affan, Islamic influence reached Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.

Thanks to the influence of Islam, many scholars were born in the country, including Ibn Hibban al-Basti, Abu Bakr Ahmad al-Baihaqi, and others.

4. China

The spread of Islam in China began with land and sea businesses during the Tang dynasty. Islam in China then grew rapidly to reach a population of more than 20 million Muslims.

One of the islamic relics in China is the establishment of the Great Mosque of Chin Cheen The She in central China. The mosque was built 1300 years ago.

The architecture is a blend of Chinese and Islamic architecture, and can accommodate about 8000 worshippers.

5. Malaysia

Islam in Malaysia flourished thanks to the growth of the Islamic kingdom there. A cleric named Sidi Abdul Aziz from Jeddah managed to drown several Malaysian government officials.

During the reign of Sultan Mansyur Syah (1414-1477 AD), the Malaysian government then connected the friendship with the kingdoms of Siam, Majapahit, to China.

This government’s relationship further strengthened Malaysia’s power, and influenced it as a strong Islamic kingdom of its time. Until now, the growth of Islam in Malaysia has accelerated.

In fact, the country’s constitution states that Islam is the “official religion of the federation” in Malaysia. Nevertheless, in practice, Malaysia still adheres to religious freedom that is friendly to other religions.

6. Brunei Darussalam

Like Islam in Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam states that Islam is the official religion there.

For further development of Islam, the Brunei government brought in many scholars from abroad to teach Islam in Brunei.

Until now, the majority of Brunei’s population is Muslim.

7. Indonesia

As Islam entered China, the spread of Islam in Indonesia was also carried out by traders from Arabia, Persia, and India.

Islam is growing rapidly in Indonesia thanks to the preaching of nine wali or Wali Songo who spread Islam through commerce, customary and cultural approaches, as well as political influence.

Today, Islam is embraced by the majority of Indonesians and belongs to the country with the largest Muslim population in the world.

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