Development of Islamic Science of Abbasid Dynasty

History of The Development of Islamic Science during the Abbasid Dynasty

After the Umayyads were overthrown, the power of the Islamic caliphate moved to the Abbasid Dynasty which took place in 750-1258 AH or 1261-1517 AD.

During this period of the Abbasid Caliphate, the history of science flourished. The Abbasid caliphate was spearheaded by Abu Al-Abbas as-Saffah who toppled the Umayyad Dynasty in 1261 AD.

Abu Al-Abbas as-Saffah was also appointed as the first caliph of the Abbasid Dynasty. The development of the political system and science advanced rapidly during the Abbasid Dynasty which perpetuated its rule for five centuries in the Middle East region.

The abbasid name was given to Abbas ibn Abdul Muththallib who came from Bani Hasyim. Descendants of Bani Hasyim claim the most right to hold the throne because their ancestors were uncles of the Prophet Muhammad SAW.

In the Abbasid era, Islamic science developed rapidly. It culminated in the reigns of Caliph Harun Al-Rashid (786-809 AH) and Caliph Al-Ma’mun Ar-Rashid (813-833 AH).

Development of Islamic Science of Abbasid Dynasty
Development of Islamic Science of Abbasid Dynasty

1. Interpretation

During the Abbasid Dynasty, two schools of interpretation continued to be used today. The two schools of interpretation are tafseer bi al-ma’tsur and tafsir bi ar-ra’yi.

The first tradition emphasizes the interpretation of the verses of the Quran with hadiths and opinions of the companions.

Meanwhile, the second tradition is more based on logic than the shari’a nas. The famous qur’anic commentator at that time was Ibn Jarir al-Thabari with his essay entitled Jami’ Al-Bayan fi Tafsir Qur’an. There is also known al-Baidhawi with Mu’allim Al-Tanzil, Al-Zamakhsyari with his writing entitled Al-Kasyaf, Al-Razi with Tafsir Al-Kabir, and so forth.

2. Kalam Science or Islamic Theology

Thanks to the tangent of Islam with Greek philosophy, the science of kalam or Islamic theology developed during the Abbasid Dynasty. The Qur’an and hadith are studied again using reason and ratio. One of the sects of kalam science, the Mu’tazilah school, reached its golden age in the Abbasid Dynasty.

Figures such as Washil ibn Atha’, Abu Huzail, and An-Nadzham are noted as influential people in this school. During the reign of Caliph Al-Ma’mun, the Mu’tazilah school was even made the official sect of this dynasty.

There are also scholars Abu Hasan al-Asyari who try to bridge the thought of Mu’tazilah and hadiths of the prophet. His thoughts until now continue to be studied by Muslims.

3. Sufism during the Abbasid Dynasty

there appeared several great Sufism figures such as Imam Ghazali, Al-Hallaj, Syahabuddin, Al-Qushairi, and so forth.

Sufism is rapidly developing and being reviewed to answer the challenges of its time. The book written by Imam Ghazali Ihya Ulumuddin continues to be studied until now.

Similarly, the writings of Al-Hallaj, At-Thawashin, and Awarifu Al-Ma’arif written by Syahabuddin.

4. Geography

During the Abbasid Dynasty, the first world map or globe was created. The Globe is known as Tabule Regoriana. The preparation of this globe was pioneered by Al-Idrisi or Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Idrisi.

The Arabic-language map shows the Eurasian mainland, the African continent, and Southeast Asia. This map of Tabule Regoriana is what Christopher Columbus referred to to travel the world to discover the Americas.

5. Chemistry

One of the greatest figures in chemistry born during the Abbasid Dynasty was Jabir bin Hayyan. Until now, he was recognized as the Father of Chemistry of the Arab Nation.

Jabir scientifically developed two major chemical operations, namely chemical calcification and reduction. It also improves evaporation, sublimation, smelting, and crystallization methods.

Some of his books are still a reference to the present day including the Book of At-Tajmi’ (about Concentration), Az-Zi’baq As-Syarqi (East Mercury), The Book of Ar-Rahmah, and so forth.

6. Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

During the Abbasid Dynasty, smallpox and measles were first distinguished. The principle of seton in operation is also found. His famous pioneers were Ar-Razi or Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Zakariya Ar-Razi.

At the time, Ar-Razi was a renowned pediatrician with the medical work al-Hawi, the book of medical encyclopedias. In addition, there is also Ibn Sina or Abu Ali Husayn bin Hasan Ali bin Sina who codified greek and Arabic medical thought in his book Al-Qanun fi At-Thib.

His work was also an encyclopedia of medicine, as well as an important reference of medicine at that time, even briefly becoming the primary reference of medicine in Europe for five centuries (from the 12th to 17th centuries AD).

Development Of Islam In The World

7. Mathematics

Mathematics achieved rapid progress during the Abbasid Dynasty. His famous figure was Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi who found the number 0 (zero).

At that time, it was also known as positive and negative numbers, knowledge of roots, algebra, and arithmetic. Al-Khawarizmi’s phenomenal book is Hisab Al-Jabr. He also explained the logarithm and is known as the first inventor of the calculation.

During the Abbasid Dynasty, classical mathematics in Greece and India was studied to produce the integration of modern mathematics. Greek books are translated into Arabic for study and development.

8. History

In history, the great historian Ibn Khaldun appeared. Initially, he studied at Al-Azhar, Egypt. After studying there, Ibn Khaldun established his own educational institution to study and study history.

The students who studied directly with Ibn Khaldun were Al-Aqrizi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Jalaluddin as-Suyuti, and others.

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