Development of Islamic Sciences of Umayyad Dynasty

History of the Development of Islamic Sciences of the Umayyad Dynasty

The history of Islamic civilization records, the first dynasty after the time of the Rasyidin Caliphate (632-661 AD) was the Umayyad Dynasty pioneered by Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan.

Although the political system departed from the Rasyidin Caliphate system, during the Umayyad Caliphate, the development of science was rapid.

Unlike the Rasyidin Caliphate, which used deliberations to appoint caliphs, later Islamic dynasties, including the Umayyad Caliphate, bequeathed power through hereditary channels.

In other words, the caliph was chosen from the son of the previous caliph. Reported from a scientific article published in the Journal of Tarbiya, the Umayyad Dynasty was established in 661 and ended in 750 AD.

During its 89 years of existence, there were 14 caliphs in power in the Umayyad Caliphate. There are 5 most famous caliphs, namely Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan, Abdul Malik bin Marwan, Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik, Umar bin Abdul Aziz, and Hasyim bin Abdul Malik.

Development of Science

Development of Islamic Sciences of Umayyad Dynasty
Development of Islamic Sciences of Umayyad Dynasty

The Umayyad caliphate, the caliphate’s family and its government paid great attention to science. A number of fields of science developed rapidly, such as fine art as evidenced by sculptures, sculptures, and calligraphy paintings from that time.

In addition, the field of architecture also developed with the construction of the Dome of Al-Sakhrah in Baitul Maqdia during the reign of Abdul Malik bin Marwan.

In the description “The Development of Science in the Umayyad Dynasty” published in the Al-Turas Scientific Bulletin, Nurhasan writes about a number of rapidly developing fields of science including religious sciences, languages, history, geography, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, physics, and other natural sciences.

HISTORY OF UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

Here is an explanation of the development of sciences during the Umayyad Caliphate:

1. Religious Sciences

In fact, religious sciences have been in demand since the time of the Rasyidin Caliphate, but during the Umayyad Dynasty, this type of science developed very rapidly. Many companions of the Prophet Muhammad SAW who traveled to preach.

In the corners of the country, there are various centers of Islamic studies that study the Qur’an, hadith, and jurisprudence. Islamic studies centers are located in Makkah, Medina, Kufah, Bashrah, Fustat, to Damascus.

Among the religious sciences that developed is the science of qiraat or the art of reading the Qur’an, as well as the science of interpretation. Figures in the field of qiraat and tafsir are Nafi’ bin Abdurrahman, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah ibn Katheer, and so forth.

There is also a development of hadith with figures such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Abu Daud, and others, fiqh with great figures such as Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik bin Anas, and others.

2. Arabic Science

Arabic Science
Arabic Science

In fact, Arabic science in the pre-Islamic period has developed considerably. However, during that time, most of the inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula were ummi (unable to read and write).

Their scientific traditions are oral, not written. During the Umayyad Caliphate, Arabic was codified in such a way and written according to the branches of the language.

For example, Abu al-Aswad ad-Duali from Bashrah who wrote the science of nahwu. Yahya ibn Ya’mar, abu al-Aswad’s disciple then studied neuroscience and balagah. During this Umayyad dynasty, Ahmad Al-Farahidi compiled arabic dictionaries and Arabic rules.

3. History

The development of historical science in the Umayyad Dynasty began from the writing of sirah nabawiyah or the life journey of The Prophet Muhammad SAW.

During the Umayyad Caliphate, the first historical books written were Al-Maghazi and Al-Sirah written by Ibn Syihab Az-Zuhri to record the history of the prophet Muhammad SAW.

Famous historians during the Umayyad Caliphate include Ibn Ishaq al-Waqidi, Ibn Hisham, Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi, and others

4. Kalam Science

In the field of kalam science, during the Umayyad Caliphate developed jabariyah sects pioneered by Jahm bin Shafwan, qadariyah school pioneered by Ma’bad Al-Juhani, and Mu’tazilah school pioneered by Washil bin Atha’.

These schools of thought and science try to interpret Islamic teachings by philosophical methods. However, many of his figures are under pressure from the government. Nevertheless, the flow of thought and science of kalam continues to grow rapidly.

5. Literature

The type of literature that flourished during the Umayyad Caliphate was poetry or poetry. These poems are recited in many meetings. In fact, at that time, there was Ukaz Market which became the place for Arabic poetry performances.

During the Umayyad dynasty, people with oral prowess, both orators and poets, had a very respectable position in their tribe.

The Arabs did not even say congratulations except for three things: the birth of a beloved foal, the birth of a baby boy, and the appearance of a poet.

In the era of the Umayyad Caliphate, there are several genres that develop, such as ghazal poetry full of nuances of love and eroticism.

Syair ghazal was developed by Umar ibn Abu Rabiah. In addition, there is also a political poem known as Al-Syi’r Al-Hizbi.

6. Chemistry and Medicine

For practical purposes, chemistry and medicine are also growing rapidly. A well-known figure who studied this field was Khalid ibn Yazid bin Mu’awiyah who studied in Alexandria, Egypt.

He translated Greek works in medicine, chemistry, pharmacy, and mathematics into Arabic. Other people from the Christian class are Ibn Atsal and Abu Hakam al-Christianity. He was the personal physician of caliph Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan.

Abu Hakam is a specialist in pharmaceuticals and medicines, from pills, tablets, to herbal herbs.

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