Fatwa Institute in the World

Every region around the world has its own different problems. Sometimes there is a fiqh law that can be done in a city but it is difficult to apply in another city. Moreover, in this modern era, there are many new problems that have not been discovered by law. These contemporary matters require a new legal fatwa from scholars who are sufficient to be qualified to be dead.

This fatwa institution is the reference of the community when facing certain situations. Some have even optimized their services with technology-friendly. Darul Ifta Egypt for example, people can ask for fatwas only by using their mobile phones through messaging.

1. Darul Ifta Egypt

Dar al-Ifta is the oldest official fatwa institution in the world that still exists today. It was founded in 1895 by a decree from the Egyptian Khedive Abbas Hilmi addressed to Nizharah Haqqaniyyah No. 10 dated November 21, 1895.

The Fatwa Institute stands alone apart from Al-Azhar after more than 700 years. And the first mufti of Dar al-Ifta at that time and titled Mufti Dayyar Al-Mashriyah, Sheikh Muhammad Abduh.

It is part of one of the main pillars of Islamic institutions in Egypt. Egypt’s Islamic institutions are supported by four pillars: Al-Azhar Asy-Sharif, Al-Azhar university, the Ministry of Waqf, and the Egyptian Fatwa Institute or Dar al-Ifta.

Institutionally, Dar al-Ifta has grown significantly. Institutionally, they have many areas in them: research centers, mufti training, translation centers, electronic communication and fatwa centers, and other supporting areas.

2. Riasah al-Ammah li al-Buhus al-Ilmiyah wal Ifta, Fatwa Institute in Saudi Arabia

It was first formed as Dar al-Ifta and then changed Riasah al-Ammah in 1971. At that time the institution was led by Sheikh Muhammad bin Ibrahim Alu Shaykh.

Since 1980, the institution’s headquarters have been completed and located in Riyadh, precisely on Jalan Asir, Al-Jaradiyah. Today, even this fatwa has spread in almost all provinces of Saudi Arabia.

In the legal and governmental system, Saudi Arabia specifically includes fatwas in article 45 (forty-five) of the constitution of the country. So riasah Ammah has a high position in the country. The constitution reads,

The Canon Of Medicine, Best Medical Book From Muslim Scientists

“The source of fatwas in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the Quran and the Sunnah of His Messenger. This system describes the organizational structure of senior scientists, their scientific studies, their claims and their characteristics.”

3. Dairatul Ifta Al-Am Jordan

The Jordanian royal fatwa institute was established in 1921 AD. When it was first established, the fatwa issued relied on the Hanafi school, following the traditions of the Ottoman Turkish empire. However, after Sheikh Hamzah Al-Arabi was appointed mufti in 1941, the system changed, although it remained under the government.

The institution continued to grow until 1986, when the waqaf ministry was formed, Dairatul Ifta Al-Am was included under the structural of this ministry. Bari in 2006 the institution was independent and officially stood alone.

Some of the duties of Dairatul Ifta Al-Am include is to issue fatwas needed by the kingdom and society, conduct research and research in a new and as needed problem, publish magazines about Islamic sharia and new issues in religion, and also cooperate with fatwa institutions in the world.

4. National Fatwa Committee of Malaysia

Malaysia has its own uniqueness regarding fatwa institutions. Each state has its own fatwa agency called the State Fatwa Committee. The committee is headed by a mufti.

The Mufti is the main authority after the Sultan in religious affairs for each state for matters related to religion. Nevertheless, the Mufti should not interfere in the shari’ah law in the Sharia Court.

In order for each Fatwa Committee of each State to be synchronized and coordinated, the National Fatwa Committee was formed. This committee is mandated to weigh, decide and issue fatwas needed by the kingdom.

5. Department of the Mufti of the Kingdom

The Royal Mufti’s Department is directly under the Prime Minister in accordance with an order issued by Sultan Hannal Bolkiah in 1996. Previously the Mufti was under the Ministry of Ehwal Ugama, precisely in coordination of sharia affairs departments.

With the position of mufti under the Prime Minister strengthened the position and the status of fatwa became stronger. The mission of the office of the Mufti of the Kingdom is as an institution that issues fatwas and irsyad (guidance and guidance), and becomes an institution that collects, issues and disseminates Islamic science.

The method of ijtihad and the decision-making mechanism of the fatwa institution is explained in detail in law beheading 77 on the Deed of the Islamic Ugama Assembly and the Kadi Courts.

6. Majelis Ulama Indonesia

The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) was established on 7 Rajab 1395 Hijri, coinciding with July 26, 1975 in Jakarta, Indonesia. This non-governmental organization was born after a gathering of 26 scholars representing 26 provinces from across the Islamic Organization. The association was later considered as the National Deliberation of Ulama I.

The first chairman of the Indonesian Ulema Council was Buya Hamka. He served for four years before being replaced by KH. Syukri Ghozali in 1981. Currently MUI is led by the Vice President of Indonesia, KH. Ma’ruf Amin since 2015.

MUI is outside the Indonesian system of government, but even so, some fatwas produced, especially those related to sharia economic operations in Indonesia, are often a source of positive law in Indonesia, because the relevant laws refer to MUI fatwas as legal products that must be believed.

7. The European Council For Fatwa and Research or Majelis Al-Aurubba li Al-Ifta wa Al-Buhuts

This fatwa institution is independent and is a combination of many great scholars from various countries in the world. It was founded on March 30, 1997 in Dublin, Ireland.

The European Council is headed by Sheikh Yusuf Qardhawi and their main focus is the interests of Muslims in continental Europe. One of the crucial fatwas issued by this institution is the use of hisab calculation of the ratio of stars or falak in determining the entry of the month of Qamariah, including the month of Ramadan and Shawwal.

This European fatwa institute uses three official languages, namely: Arabic, English and French.

8. Al-Amanah Al-Ammah Liduari wa Haiaat Al-Ifta fi Al-Alam

This fatwa institution is international and is referred to in English by, General Secretariat for Fatwa Authorities Worldwide.

The institute was established on December 15, 2015, initiated by Darul Ifta Egypt. This began from Darul Ifta’s intention to expand the fatwa to the rest of the world because many countries do not have enough scholars or institutions to die.

Leave a Comment