History of Umayyad Caliphate, The first Islamic caliphate

History of the Umayyad Caliphate, Its Glory, Until Its Collapse

The Umayyad dynasty was the first caliphate after the Khulafaur Rasyidin era in Islamic history. The name of this dynasty is taken from umayyad bin ‘Abd ash-Shams or Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan aka Muawiyah I, one of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, then became the caliph who led in 661-680 AD.

Broadly speaking, the umayyad caliphate was divided into two main periods, namely 661-750 AD centered in Damascus (now the capital of Syria), then the period 756-1031 AD in Cordoba along with the ruling Muslim forces in Spain, Andalusia.

The establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty began with the Tahkim or Shiffin War. Described by Abdussyafi Muhammad Abdul Lathif in the Rise and Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate (2016), this was a civil war between the stronghold of Muawiyah 1 against Ali ibn Abi Talib, the 4th caliph after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.

The Battle of Shiffin occurred after the death of the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, on 17 June 656, which opened the opportunity for Ali ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, to take the lead.

After Ali ibn Abi Talib died on 29 January 661, the leadership was continued by Hasan, Ali’s son and grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, for several months. Hasan later relinquished his post.

The success of the Umayyad Caliphate

Broadly speaking, the nearly 90-year reign of the Umayyad Dynasty was divided into two periods: the period of the Caliphate centered in Damascus (Syria) and the heyday in Spain, Andalusia, with its center in Cordoba.

Thus, the territory of the Umayyad Caliphate was vast. Quoted from muhammad Fathurrohman’s History of Islamic Civilization (2017), the region covers most of the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, the coast of South Africa to Andalusia, which is the area now occupied by Portugal and Spain.

During the reign of Al Walid ibn Abdul-Malik (705-715), the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate extended to Spain. The conquest of Andalusia occurred in 711 AD.

Development takes precedence at this time. The construction of the al-Amawi hospital and mosque in Damascus, the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerussalem, the expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina, is an important history of the role of the Umayyad Dynasty.

When Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (717-720) became caliph, the field of Islamic science was a top priority. Archiving hadith, arabic language development, science qiraah (reading the Koran), fiqh, to various papers and scientific products are growing rapidly at this time.

Umayyad dynasty collapse

History of the Umayyad Caliphate
History of the Umayyad Caliphate

The success of the Umayyad Dynasty began to decline when disgruntled groups of the government began to emerge. The Abbasids led this resistance effort and ultimately weakened the Umayyad rule.

The middle of the 6th century became the crucial times of the Umayyad Caliphate. During this period, the Umayyads began to suffer defeats from Abbasid forces. Until finally, in 750 AD Damascus was captured by the Abbasids who practically made the Umayyad government fall.

In 1031, Hisham III, the Umayyad Caliph of Cordoba at the time, resigned from his post. The situation is getting chaotic due to a leadership crisis.

The absence of a qualified leader forced the council of ministers to remove the post of caliph. The Umayyad government in Andalusia was divided into small countries until the Islamic rule in Cordoba was completely destroyed.

Salary of Leaders During the Islamic Caliphate

List of Leaders

Umayyads of the Main Caliphate in Damascis

– Muawiyah I bin Abu Sufyan, 661-680 AD
– Yazid I bin Muawiyah, 680-683 AD Muawiyah II bin Yazid, 683-684 M-Marwan I bin al-Hakam, 684-685 -Abdullah bin
– Al-Walid I bin Abdul-Malik, 705-715 AD
– Sulaiman bin Abdul-Malik, 715-717
– Umar II bin Abdul-Aziz, 717-720
– M Yazid II bin Abdul-Malik, 720-724
– Hisyam bin Abdul-Malik, 724-743
– Al-Walid II bin Yazid II, 743-744 -Yazid III bin al-Walid, 744 AD
– Ibrahim bin al-Walid, 744 AD
– Marwan II muhammad, 744-750 AD

leaders in Cordoba

– Abdur-rahman I, 756-788 AD Hisham I, 788-796
– Al-Hakam I, 796-822
– Abdur-rahman II, 822-888
– Abdullah ibn Muhammad, 888-912
– Abdur-rahman III, 912-929 AD

caliphate in Cordoba

– Abdur-rahman III, 929-961
– Al-Hakam II, 961-976
– Hisham II, 976-1008
– Muhammad II, 1008-1009
– Sulaiman, 1009-1010
– Hisham II, 1010-1012
– Sulaiman, 1012-1017
– Abdur-rahman IV, 1021-1022
– Abdur-rahman V, 1022-1023
– Muhammad III, 1023-1024
– Hisham III, 1027-1031 AD

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