Islam does not restrict the social life of its adherents to interact with people of different religions. Islam allows its adherents to interact with other religions on common issues, such as economic issues, social issues, and including environmental issues.
Religious books refer to the interaction of Muslims and non-Muslims with the term muamalah. Islam does not prohibit muslims and non-Muslims.
The Prophet (pbuh) himself hired the services of Abdullah bin Uraiqith who at that time was an idolater as a guide when the Prophet did hijrah. The Prophet (pbuh) once borrowed the axe of a group of Jews for the sake of war.
Shafwan bin Umayyad had joined the army of the Prophet (s) during the battle of Hunain. Whereas we all know that Shafwan ibn Umayyad remained true to the rest of his life.
In Muslim and non-Muslim interactions, Islam teaches that religious people value their beliefs. Islam gives the religious people the right to practice religious values in accordance with the teachings he believes in.
Surat Al-Kafirun affirms the difference in the beliefs of Muslims and non-Muslims. Surat Al-Kafirun teaches Muslims and non-Muslims to respect the teachings of other religions and not to offend others’ religious problems.
In the early history of Islam, we found the social interaction and closeness of Muslims who were so close between Muslims and non-Muslims.
We find in history how the Prophet’s relationship with non-Muslim rulers around the Arab country is. History also records Muslims interacting well with non-Muslims in Medina.
The date books tell the spirit of peace of Muslims who came from Medina at the fathu event of Makkah. Rasulullah SAW itself conducts correspondence with non-Muslim rulers.
The Prophet (pbuh) also did not reject their gifts and gifts. The Prophet (pbuh) received their gift well. In fact, the Prophet accepted female slaves from non-Muslim rulers.
The Concept of Religion in Islam
Islam teaches its people to initiate peace in religious communities. Islam invites all religious people to seek equality rather than differences in interfaith sharia.
Islam encourages religious people to glorify the god of the universe who created the diversity of religion itself. Islam also does not teach its people to look for differences in religion that can lead to social divisions.
While the search for meeting points and similarities of several different religions is intended to humble themselves together and admire the greatness of Almighty God. (Sura Al Imran verse 64).
Differences in beliefs are inevitable. Each religion has a different concept of deity and shari’a. There are a number of religions that have similarities in many ways.
There are also far different. Nevertheless, Islam teaches mankind to manage with different beliefs in the middle of social life so as not to become a social problem.
Islam teaches its people to appreciate even the concept of the godliness of other religions. Islam strictly forbids its people to demean, ridicule, and reproach the divine teachings of other religions.
Acts of abuse and contempt for the godly system and other religious shari’a have the potential for a similar response from other religions resulting in endless retaliation.
This should be avoided. No wonder that Islam itself forbids its people to offend the concept of internal deity of other religions because this issue is very sensitive and very prone to divisions and disputes. Sura al-An’am verse 108.
The Concept of The Godhead
In the matter of deity, Islam declares that there is no compulsion in matters of belief. Surah Al-Baqarah verse 256. Ibn Jarir al-Thabari explained the context of Sura al-Baqarah verse 256.
He narrated that Hashin (a friend of Anshar of Bani Salim bin Auf) had two sons who were Christian. He consulted the Prophet (pbuh), “Should I have forced my two sons because they are Christians?”
Because of this event, Allah sent down Sura al-Baqarah verse 256 which states there is no compulsion in religion.
Why in Islamic view, religious beliefs cannot be forced? Indeed, disfaith is part of the will and power of God. To unify the confidence of mankind all over the world, God is certainly capable and powerful.
Therefore, Allah forbids the Prophet Muhammad PBUH to impose religious beliefs and views on mankind. “Had your Lord willed, everyone on the earth would have believed. Will you compel people to become believers all together?” (Letter of Jonah verse 99).
between Muslims and non-Muslims
Islam teaches its people to do good and fair to other religions that are ready to coexist peacefully.
Islam does not forbid its people to behave as well as their fellow Muslims against non-Nuslim who do not fight them because of religion and expel them from settlement. (Sura al-Mumtahanah verses 8-9).
Good deeds and fair deeds to non-Muslims are basic human rights that must be fulfilled by Muslims.
Against non-Muslims like this, Muslims should not be hostile and fight because of religious differences.
Muslims have a closer relationship. Muslims are united with them at one origin of the same faith and prophets who introduce the same concept of godliness. (As-Shura verse 13).
Muslims are also required to believe in all books and apostles before the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Even the faith of Muslims is not valid without believing in the existence of the apostles and all the previous scriptures. Al-Baqarah verse 136
If only the People of the Book read the Qur’an, they will find a lot of appreciation for the previous scriptures, the prophets and apostles before the Prophet Muhammad SAW. (Al-Ankabut verse 46).
Islam teaches Muslims to be kind to non-Muslims, especially the People of the Book. The Qur’an allows Muslims to eat the food and meat of the people of the Book. (Al-Maidah verse 5). Even the Christians get a noble place in the Qur’an. In the Qur’an, Christianity has a place so special in the hearts of Muslims. (Al-Maidah verse 82).