After the French Revolution in 1789, the country began to experience rapid progress until it became a fierce rival to Britain. Over the years, the two countries have often been in conflict. Until the end of the 18th century, Britain tried to develop its interests in India, after the decline of the Mughal Dynasty.
France, which was under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte, then tried to cut off communication between Britain and India by controlling Egypt.
Still in the same year, Napoleon succeeded in controlling Egypt, which made Muslims feel colonized by the West. Therefore, figures began to emerge who carried out Islamic reform in Egypt.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, Reformers in Egypt
Pasha is one of the figures who aggressively voiced Islamic reform in Egypt who was born from a simple family. Nevertheless, he was able to build a career as a tax collector, then entered the military service and became an officer.
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha was sent to lead his army against the French and was able to successfully complete his mission. After successfully repelling the French troops, the Egyptian people began to have great sympathy for him.
Since then, Muhammad Ali Pasha is credited as the first person to evoke modernization in Egypt. Some of the updates from Muhammad Ali Pasha are as follows. Military and educational fields, with the establishment of the first Ministry of Education in Egypt, military schools, technical schools, medical schools, and translation schools.
Pasha sends about 300 students to Europe, mainly Paris, to study.
Rifa’ah Badawi at-Tahtawi
Rifa’ah Badawi at-Tahtawi was born in 1801. She studied in France for five years and is known to have translated 12 books and tracts. Upon his return to Egypt, he was appointed a French teacher and translator at a medical school. Rifa’ah’s work in education continued until 1836, when she founded the School of Translation.
Rifa’ah also briefly served as the head of the newspaper Al-Waqa’i al-Mishriyah, where she shared a lot of news and knowledge about the progress of the West. Some of Rifa’ah’s thoughts regarding its reforms in Egypt are: Leaders must consult with scholars, scholars, doctors, and economists. Shari’ah must be adapted to modern developments.
The scholars are obliged to study philosophy and modern science so that they are in accordance with the Shari’a and the needs of the times. Education is universal for all groups. Muslims must be dynamic and not static.
Al-Afghani is a reformer from Afghanistan who also shares his thoughts in Egypt. At the age of 22, he was employed as a maid of Prince Dos Muhammad Khan in Afghanistan. After no longer working for Prince Dos, Jamaluddin was appointed adviser to Sher Ali Khan, Amir of Afghanistan, in 1864.
A few years later, he was appointed Prime Minister, immediately faced with a situation in which Britain was pressing and interfering in Afghan political affairs. Jamaluddin went to India and got to know about modern education there. When India fell to the British, Jamaluddin decided to go to Egypt in 1871.
During his stay in Egypt, some of the reforms he made were: Against the Egyptian government which was interfered with by the British. Joined Egyptian politicians and formed Hizb Al-Wathani (National Party)
Muhammad Abduh, Reformers in Egypt
The Islamic reformer in Egypt whose full name is Muhammad Abduh Ibn Hasan Khairullah was born in Gharbiyyah, Egypt, in 1625 H. When he was young, he was educated at Al-Azhar Egypt. At this time, new ideas began to emerge from him regarding Islam, especially because of the social conditions and religious understanding of Muslims in Egypt at that time.
The condition in question is the occurrence of static and sumptuous thinking, as well as a dualistic education system. Read also: Ambo Dalle, Professor of Islam from the Land of Bugis These problems arose because of the lack of knowledge of Muslims at that time about the true teachings of Islam.
To that end, Muhammad Abduh carried out several reforms, such as: Establishing the Ar-Urwatul Wusqa magazine with his colleague Jamaluddin al-Afghani Inviting Muslims to return to true Islamic teachings Social teachings in Islam are adapted to the times. Hadith) Willing to reason and time
Rasyid Rida, Reformers in Egypt
Sheikh Rasyid Rida is a scholar who is still a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, so that he is used as a role model in matters of worship. He is known as a figure who has the ability to understand various views. These advantages make Rida carried away to more advanced Islamic thoughts. Rasyid Rida started running his reform ideas while in Syria. Unfortunately, his thoughts met with opposition from the Ottoman Empire.
Therefore, Rida decided to move to Egypt and implement his reforms there. The reforms carried out by Rasyid Rida are: Must return to the Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah to know more about Islam Islamic teachings are dynamic Western civilization does not conflict with Islam Renewal also enters fiqh
is known as an Islamic education figure who laid out Laihah Rajab or educational plans for the Egyptians. Laihah Rajab is based on democracy with the aim of developing educational institutions, researching educational institutions in the regions, and publishing administration.
Since Laihah Rajab was implemented, educational institutions in Egypt have grown rapidly. In fact, Laihah Rajab is recognized by the government from elementary to university levels.
Thaha Husain considers that higher education is one of the best means to produce scientists and experts who perform well. For Husain, the university can reflect intelligence and scholarship.
In order to achieve this, he emphasized that the Egyptian education system must be based on Western systems and methods, from secondary schools to universities. Thanks to Husain’s ideas, science in Egypt developed rapidly, because it was able to give birth to new innovations in the field of education.