Jerusalem mentioned in the Quran

Jerusalem is mentioned 70 times in the Quran.

Jerusalem is one of the oldest cities in the world, located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean sea and the Dead Sea. The city is considered sacred in three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Throughout its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and recaptured and recaptured 44 times. The oldest part of the city housed settlements in the 4th millennium BC.

In 1538 a wall was built around Jerusalem under suleiman al-Qanuni. Today the wall surrounds the Old City, which has traditionally been divided into four parts, since the early 19th century known as Armenia, Christianity, Judaism, and Muslims.

The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and was included in the List of World Heritage Sites in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has expanded far beyond the boundaries of the Old City.

The status of Jerusalem remains one of the main issues in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, West Jerusalem was one of the areas captured and later annexed by Israel; East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan.

Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan in the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, along with additional surrounding areas. [viii] One of Israel’s Basic Laws, the Jerusalem Law of 1980, calls Jerusalem the undivided capital of the state.

All areas of Israeli government are in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israeli parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister and President, as well as the Supreme Court.

Although the international community rejects the annexation, calling it illegal and treating East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to its sovereignty over West Jerusalem.

The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, and no foreign embassies have been established in the city. In Jerusalem there are also several non-governmental Israeli institutions of national importance, such as the Hebrew University and the Israel Museum with the Shrine of the Book in its grounds.

History of Islam and Yerusalem

In the Islamic perspective, the history of Jerusalem can be drawn from the exit of the Children of Israel from Egypt under the leadership of Moses. The Qur’an of surat al-Maidah, for example, tells how the Children of Israel rejected Allah’s command to fight for Jerusalem.

In fact, brazenly they say, as enshrined in surah al-Maidah verse 24 which means: Go you (Moses) with your Lord, and fight the two of you, we are just sitting here.

Finally, God said the Children of Israel could not enter Jerusalem until the appearance of The Prophet Yusha bin Nun. Under his command, the Children of Israel rose to fight against the Palestinians to capture Jerusalem, although it was not entirely successful.

It was only about a thousand years before AD that the army of the Children of Israel took up arms again. This time, the Philistines were led by Jalut, while the Children of Israel were commanded by Thalut.

At that time, the young Prophet David appeared as a hero because he managed to topple Jalut. After the leader of Thalut died, David became his successor. During the reign of The Prophet David, the Children of Israel began to build Baitul Maqdis as a center of worship.

Furthermore, his son who is also a messenger of Allah, Prophet Solomon, perfected the construction of the holy house. Baitul Maqdis is the forerunner of masjid al-Aqsa as we know it today.

4 Historic Old Cities in Palestine Besides Jerusalem

However, the Jews looked quite differently at the building that Solomon built in Jerusalem. They named it solomon’s temple.

In historical records, solomon temple was completed in 950 years BC (BC). After the death of Prophet Sulaiman, the kingdom of the Children of Israel was broken so that it became vulnerable to attacks from the outside.

In 587 BC, Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar invaded Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple of Solomon. Almost all of the Children of Israel were taken to Babylon to become slaves.

Good fortune only arrived in 539 BC. The founder of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great, defeated the Babylonian Empire. The Persian emperor freed the Children of Israel from humiliation and even allowed them to return to Jerusalem.

The Children of Israel then rebuilt the Temple of Solomon under the leadership of Sheshbazzara. This is what is often referred to as the Second Temple. This building lasted quite a long time, namely in the period 516 BC to 70 AD.

The destruction of the Second Temple occurred in the event of socio-political events. Since 63 BC, jerusalem was controlled by the Roman Empire. In the year 66, the Jews rebelled against the roman rulers. This revolt was answered by Emperor Titus’s invasion four years later over Jerusalem.

The Second Temple was destroyed to show Roman domination. Until 135, the Jews lived in difficulty because the Roman Empire favored paganism by, for example, establishing an idolatrous temple in Jerusalem.

However, the teachings of Jesus have spread beyond Jerusalem since the first century AD. Followers of The Prophet Jesus were often hunted by the rulers of Rome and even tortured, for example, by making him a lion bait on the colosseum. Good fortune came to Christianity in the third century. Emperor Constantine I declared his support for Christianity.

Thus, the status of Jerusalem was restored as a city revered by the ruler. One of the emperor’s legacies is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to Christian belief, it was there that Jesus was crucified and his body was buried, to be believed to be empty because Jesus rose again.

Until the seventh century, there were at least three major events taking place in Jerusalem. First, the persian army invasion (Sasanid) in 614 resulted in the massacre of 60,000 Christians in Jerusalem. More than 30,000 other Christians were brought to Persia to become slaves. Christian worship buildings in Jerusalem were also destroyed.

Second, the Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius regained control of Jerusalem in 629. This time, the Jews were targeted for murder. Meanwhile, Heraclius also restored the Christian hegemony over Jerusalem after the persian power there.

As the two major events took place, Islam began to strengthen its influence in the Arabian Peninsula, especially after the Conquest of Makkah in 630.

Third, the liberation of Jerusalem by Muslims under the leadership of Umar ibn Khaththab. During the time of the second caliph, both the Persian and Eastern Roman empires were degraded.

Meanwhile, Muslims are eager to spread the teachings of the Prophet (peace be upon him) outside Arabia, among others, by means of conquest. On August 20, 636, Muslim armies prevailed against Eastern Roman forces at the Battle of Yarmouk. In July 637, the Muslims successfully besieged Jerusalem.

As Karen Armstrong describes in her book, Jerusalem: One City Three Faiths, Caliph Umar heard about the harsh attitude of Jerusalem’s Christian leader, Sophronius.

He wanted the keys to the gates of Jerusalem to be handed over to Umar directly, instead of the field military leader. So, caliph Umar came there, while Sophronius and his subordinates had prepared a ceremony that seemed luxurious in honor of Umar.

Upon seeing the arrival of Umar, Sophronius and the local Christians were astonished. The reason, the caliph appeared with the clothes he used to wear in Medina: clothes with rough fabric, like the poor.

For Karen, it seems that Jerusalem’s Christian leaders were touched by how much the Muslim leader lived jesus’ teachings on empathy for the poor than they did.

Umar also pointed to the importance of the idea of compassion more than any of jerusalem’s conquerors before him, perhaps other than The Prophet David. He (Umar ibn Khaththab) implemented the most peaceful and most bloodshedless conquest in the city’s long history (Jerusalem) full of sorrow and tragedy, writes Karen Armstrong again.

Caliph Umar also refused to pray in the church. The reason was presented to Sophronius. Umar did not want the church to be converted by Muslim soldiers into a mosque just because its leader had prayed there.

Umar was also sensitive to the Jews. History records that during the strong Dominance of the Eastern Romans in Jerusalem, local Christians made the remains of the Second Temple building that Persia destroyed as a trash can. It certainly hurts the feelings of the Jews.

As soon as he saw the appearance of the building, Caliph Umar was for a moment surprised. However, as historian Mujir al-Din said, Umar then took some stones that hoarded the former Second Temple. Umar’s actions were soon followed by all Muslim armies. Moments later, the site appeared cleaner than ever.

Umar, like all Muslims at the time, understood the significance of Jerusalem to the three faithful who recognized the prophethood of Ibrahim (as).

However, in contrast to christian and Jewish rulers who discredited each other, Caliph Umar sought to make Jerusalem an open home for Muslims, Christians, and Jews.

Caliph Umar then called Kaab bin Ahbar, a Muslim who was once Jewish for his opinion. The Prophet’s companions, nicknamed al-Faruq, wanted to ensure the location of the sites in jerusalem that are historic in a Jewish perspective.

The caliph also invited Jewish leaders from Tiberia to help restore jerusalem. In fact, al-Faruq allowed 70 Tiberian Jewish families to settle in Jerusalem.

According to Karen Armstrong, it was only in Umar’s time that the Jews saw hope for a peaceful life in Jerusalem.

History records that not a single Christian or Jew at the time of the conquest was forced to convert to Islam. Instead of coercion, Caliph Umar ordered that the people should not be given protection and security, both on themselves and their property.

In addition, Muslim soldiers are also prohibited from blocking the entrance to every church. The governor of Jerusalem is strictly forbidden to harm non-Muslims (infidel dhimmi).

Because of this strict but tolerant rule, writes Karen Armstrong, Nestorian and Monophysite Christians even preferred Jerusalem under Muslim rule, rather than the ancient Eastern Romans.

After the time of Khulafaur Rashiddin, relative peace still overshadowed Jerusalem. In 687, the caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty, Abdul Malik, began the construction of qubbat ash-shakhrah (Dome of the Rock) on the site of a large stone believed to be the resting place of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) before undergoing Miraj to Sidratul Muntaha.

However, the caliph also wanted Qubbat ash-Shakhrah as an attraction for pilgrims coming from various parts of the world to Jerusalem.

Four years later, the complex was completed. Thus, until the close of the seventh century AD, the world witnessed a jerusalem that was relatively peaceful when compared to earlier times.

Islam is proven to be present by bringing a full tolerance of respect for other beliefs.

The situation didn’t last forever. Entering the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks took control of Yerusalem and forbade Christian pilgrims from entering it. In 1096, about 100,000 Crusaders came to Yerusalem to seize power.

Not only Muslims, even fellow Christians (Eastern) are victims of his savagery. When the Crusaders took control of Yerusalem, Jews and Muslims had difficulty worshipping there. Things were relatively calm for the three religious faithful when Sultan Shalahuddin al-Ayyubi and Richard the Lion-Hearted agreed to a ceasefire in 1192.

Until the mid-16th century, Yerusalem was generally controlled by a number of Islamic sultanates. The situation can also be said to be balanced. In fact, in 1816 the Muslim authorities allowed the Jews to enter Yerusalem more freely.

As a result, the Jewish population has increased rapidly since then. By the end of the 19th century, Theodore Herzl’s Zionist movement was growing rapidly, while the Turkish sultanate controlling Yerusalem tended to weaken.

At its height, muslim rulers’ dominance over Yerusalem collapsed in 1917, 20 years after the first World Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. Turkey surrendered to Great Britain. Meanwhile, the Arab World is divided into many countries with Western support.

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