The position as caliph was then held by Ali’s son Hasan for several months. However, because Hasan wanted peace and avoided bloodshed, Hasan handed over the post of caliphate to Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan.
And finally this handover of power can unite Muslims again in one political leadership, under Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan.
On the other hand, the surrender also caused Mu’awiyah to become the absolute ruler in Islam. The year 41 H (661 AD), the year of the union, is known in history as the year of jama’ah (‘am jama’ah).
Thus ended the period called khulafaur Rashidin, and the umayyads began in the political history of Islam.
At that time, the territory of Islam was very large. The expansion into countries very far from the center of power in no more than half a century, is the stunning victory of a nation that had never had sufficient political experience before.
- The factors that cause such rapid expansion include the following :
1. Islam, besides being a teaching that regulates human relationship with God, is also a religion that attaches importance to the formation of society.
2. In the chest of the companions, deeply embedded belief about the obligation to call the teachings of Islam (da’wah) to all corners of the world. The spirit of da’wah forms a unified unity in Muslims.
Byzantium and Persia, the two forces that controlled the Middle East at that time, began to enter a period of decline and weakness, both because of frequent wars between the two and because of their respective domestic problems.
3. Religious conflict in Byzantine territory resulted in the loss of religious freedom for the people. The people were not happy because the kingdom forced the flow it embraced. They were also unhappy because of the high taxes on the cost of the war against Persia.
Islam came to the areas it entered with a sympathetic and tolerant attitude, not forcing the people to change their religion to convert to Islam.
The Sami in Syria and Palestine and the Hami in Egypt looked at the Arabs closer to them than the Europeans, the Byzantines, who ruled them.
Egypt, Syria and Iraq are rich areas. That wealth helped Islamic rulers to finance expansion into further areas.
4. Starting from the time of Abu Bakr to Ali is called the period of the Rashiddah Caliphate. The caliphs are called al-Khulafa’ al-Rashidun, (the caliphs who are guided).
The characteristic of this time is that the caliphs are really according to the example of the prophet. After this period, Islamic rule took the form of a kingdom. Power is passed down through the generations.
In addition, a caliph during the caliphate of Rashiddah, never acted alone when the state faced difficulties; They always talked to other princes. The rulers afterwards often acted authoritarianally.
Khulafaur Rashidin or Caliph Ar-Rashiddin was the first four caliphs (leaders) of Islam, who were trusted by Muslims as the successor of the leadership after the Prophet Muhammad died.
The four are closest friends of Muhammad who are recorded as the closest and most known in defending the teachings he brought in during Muhammad’s apulent.
The four caliphs were chosen not based on their descendants, but based on consensus with Muslims. The electoral system of each caliph is different, it happens because the companions consider there is no clear reference left by the Prophet Muhammad about how the succession of Islamic leadership will take place.
But Shi’ite believers believe that Muhammad clearly appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib, the 4th caliph that Muhammad wanted his descendants to continue his leadership over Muslims, they referred to one of ghadir Khum’s hadiths.
Officially the term Khulafaur Rashidin refers to the first four caliphs of Islam. But some scholars consider that khulafaur Rashidin or caliph who obtained guidance is not limited to the four people above. But it can also include the caliphs afterwards whose lives are completely in accordance with the instructions of the Qur’an and sunnah.
One of the many scholars who by agreement could be given the title of khulafaur rashidin was Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, caliph of the 8th Umayyad Bani.