The city of Yathrib (Medina) before the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions was a region full of inter-tribal conflicts. Especially the two major tribes of the time, the ‘Aus and the Khazraj.
In tubs of water and oil, the two tribes have never spoken and conflicted all year. One of the encouragements of the prophet Muhammad and his companions to Yathrib was to unite all the people in the land of Medina.
Previously, The Prophet Muhammad who was famous for his honesty and noble morals was asked by some Yathrib citizens who were tired of conflict to unite and give peace.
Prophet Muhammad was well received by the people of Yathrib, especially by the companions of Anshar who had followed the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad.
He and his companions did not impose Islam on the people of Medina who had been known from the beginning compound (diverse, plural). There are Muslims, Christians, and Jews.
before starting the steps to unite the people of Medina, of course the Prophet Muhammed first united muslims, namely the Muhajirin and Anshar.
There are hypocrites who seek to create a conflict between the Muhajirin and Ansar and lead the Muslims into a war between the Tribes of ‘Aus and Khazraj.
The hypocrites’ efforts were read successfully by the Prophet Muhammad so that the Muslims did not get caught up and fell into the evil efforts.
Then the Prophet Muhammad embraced all the people and bound him in a consensus of the city of Medina, namely the Charter of Medina (Mitsaq al-Madinah).
The Prophet Muhammad implemented a high-level political policy by realizing the “Unity of Yathrib”. The Prophet Muhammad also laid the foundation of statehood in the Charter of Medina by agreeing with the Jews on the basis of deliberation and close communion.
The Jews welcomed the Prophet Muhammad for his goal of uniting the people of Yathrib. The Prophet Muhammad consulted with Jewish chiefs who had been attached to the conflict. Both the Quraiza, nadhir, and Qainuqa tribes. So are the Christians.
From the Qiblah side, at that time the qibla in prayer was still towards Baitul Maqdis, their point of concern, the place where the israil family gathered. His friendship with the Jews and the Jewish side’s friendship with the Prophet Muhammad grew closer and closer.
The authority of the Prophet Muhammad is so clearly seen in front of the people of Medina because it is full of noble morals, very humble, loaded with compassion, always fulfilling promises, generous nature, always open with the poor, and always present for people who live suffering.
The Prophet Muhammad succeeded in uniting the people of Medina with the bonds of friendship and fellowship agreements and establishing religious freedom.
However, the Prophet Muhammad according to the deliberations also set penalties for anyone, from any tribe, and from any tribe that violates the agreement in the Charter of Medina.
Clearly, before the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) emigrated to Medina, or when the last city was still named Yathrib, there were two large tribes that clashed hundreds of years.
The two major tribes in Yathrib were Aus with the Jewish allies of the Quraiza and the Khazraj tribe with the Jewish allies of the Banu Nadhir.
Therefore, since two years before hijrah (620 AD), Prophet Muhammad SAW is often contacted by several figures from Yathrib, both from Kabilah Aus and Khazraj. Although The Prophet Muhammad SAW had many enemies in Makkah, he remained famous for his reputation as al-Amin, an honest and trustworthy man
The tribal leaders in Yathrib realized that the socio-political situation in the city was in crisis so that it needed a hakam or arbitrator capable of resolving the disputes of the two major tribes.
And, they then agreed that the Prophet Muhammad SAW is a decent figure and kapabel to be the arbitrator to resolve the conflict.
At the same time, the struggle of prophet Muhammad SAW in Makkah also suffered a stalemate. Therefore, the Prophet (pbuh) invited muslims in Makkah, who still numbered a few to emigrate to Yathrib, after getting orders from Allah.
Of course, with hope, Islamic preaching is welcomed better by the citizens of Yathrib. Thus, in 622 AD or the first year of hijri, Prophet Muhammad SAW made agreements with various circles consisting of various tribes, races, and religions in Yathrib, known as the Charter of Medina.