Quran was revealed by Allah in Arabic. This is clearly proven by the word of Allah SWT, among them.
Joseph verse 2 :
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
Indeed, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand.
Surah Ibrahim verse 4 :
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ فَيُضِلُّ اللّهُ مَن يَشَاء وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
And We did not send any messenger except [speaking] in the language of his people to state clearly for them, and Allah sends astray [thereby] whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
Arabs in the early era, used words that did not come from arabic because of the influence of other cultures on them.
Arabs, like everyone else, used names that were foreign to their culture but those words were easily absorbed with the passage of time. They became part of the Arabic words that could easily fit into the famous Arabic grammar rules.
It is clear from the above verses that the Quran is revealed in Arabic because Arabic is the native language of the Arabs. Revealing the Quran in Arabic is necessary for The Arabs to understand the message of the Quran and understand it easily.
However, it is known that there is an uptake of words from different languages due to close contact between individuals and groups. Such interactions are common in our social lives.
Thus, interpolation of such words may be the product of the transfer from one language to another, or due to the fact that two languages have a common origin. Therefore, as long as non-Arabic words are easily absorbed into the Arabic language, they are considered Arabic words.
The same rules applied in Arabic also apply to the Qur’an. According to some Muslim scholars, there are non-Arabic words in the Quran such as Alqistas, but those words have become Arabic because the Arabs used them gently and they have entered into the rules of Arabic grammar.
In his Tafsir, Imam Al-Qurtubi, states, “There is no difference between the four Imams of Jurisprudent that there are non-Arabic words and names of self in the Quran such as Noah, Lut, Imran, Jibril.” However, this does not mean there is an agreement of the scholars on this issue. On the contrary, it is highly controversial, as will be clarified below,
There are some differences of opinion among scholars whether the language of the Qur’an includes foreign words. Some scholars, including Al-Tabari and Al-Baqillani, hold that all the words in the Quran are Arabic and that the foreign words found in the Qur’an are part of the Arabic language.
This makes it clear that some words derived from non-Arabic have become Arabic words due to daily habits. However, it is recognized that there are names of non-Arabs in the Quran, such as Imran, Noah, and so on. Other scholars argue that the Qur’an does contain words that are not used in Arabic, such as:
- Al-Qistas (Al Isra verse 35), comes from the Greek.
- Al-Sijjil (Al Hijr verse 74), derived from Persian.
- Al-Ghasaq (An naba verse 25), comes from the Turkish language.
- At-Tur (Al Baqarag verse 63), derived from the Syrian language; and
- Al-Kifl (Al Hadid verse 28), comes from the Abyssinian language.
Some scholars have written books on the topic of ‘foreign vocabulary in the Quran’, for example Al-Suyuti who compiled a small book with a list of 118 expressions in different languages.