Humans are created with various backgrounds, be it from tribe, language, culture, gender to skin color. But from the many differences that can be seen, it turns out that it is a destiny that has been made by the Almighty.
As in the words of God :
وَمِنْ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ خَلْقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَٱخْتِلَـٰفُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَٰنِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ لَـَٔايَـٰتٍۢ لِّلْعَـٰلِمِينَ
“And one of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the diversity of your languages and colors. Surely in this are signs for those of ˹sound˺ knowledge.” (Ar-Rum: 22).
The verse clearly provides information that human beings have physical differences. But these differences do not necessarily make humans divided.
Science explains, that in the human skin, precisely below the epidermis, there are skin cells called arachnoids. The cell resembles a cobweb on the sides of which stretches a thin membrane. This number of cells has 60,000 per inch of skin.
However, it is said that there is no difference in the number of cells between white and black humans because it is constant. The difference, as explained by the book Science in the Quran (2013), occurs due to the thickness of a coloring agent called melanin.
Between fair-skinned and black-skinned humans there is a difference in the amount of melanin which is no more than 1 gram. Such melanin levels are determined by genetic factors in the cell nucleus.
There are also those who argue that differences in skin color occur due to differences in location. People who live around the equator are more likely to be exposed to sunlight so they have a deep color.
However, the Messenger of Allah SAW once said the one narrated by Abu Hurairah. “Verily God does not look to your likeness and treasure, but He looks to your heart and your charity,” (HR. Muslim).