Who Named the Chapters in The Quran?

The Quran has beautiful and meaningful names. So, who gave the name of the Chapters in the Quran?Prophet or friend?

In this case, there are several hadiths of shahih, that the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam named several Chapters of the Qur’an, including: al-Fatihah, al-Baqarah, Ali Imran, and al-Kahfi.

Meanwhile, scholars differ in opinion, did the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam name the entire Chapter in the Quran? Or is there some Chapter that gives its name based on the ijtihad of friends? There are two scholarly opinions in this matter.

First, all the Chapters in the Quran, which gives the name are the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars.

Among them, Imam Ibn Jarir at-Thabari (d. 310 H), he said :

“All the Chapters in the Quran have the name given by the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.” (Jami’ al-Bayan fi Ta’wil al-Quran, 1/100)

So is the opinion of Shaykh Sulaiman al-Bajirami (d. 1221 H). He says:

“The names of the Chapters, based on the instructions of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. Because the names of the Chapters, the order of the Chapters, and the order of the verses, these three things, are all based on the instructions of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, under the guidance of Gabriel ‘alaihis salam that the systematics of the Quran in Lauhul Mahfudz is like that,” (Tuhfah al-Habib ‘ala Syarh al-Khatib, 4/222).

Even as-Suyuthi (d. 911 H) asserts, that all the naming of Chapters in the Quran has been determined by the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and all are based on the hadith of shahih. He says:

“There is a hadith and atsar that shahih that all the names of the Chapters in the Quran come from the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. If you don’t worry about lengthening, I can mention all those hadiths.” (al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Quran, 1/186).

ALSO READ : The Verse ‘Sajadah’ In The Quran

Second Opinion, not all the names of Chapters in the Qur’an are given by the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. There are some Chapters whose names were given by the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and there are some names whose names are from the ijtihad of the companions.

In the Fatwa Lajnah Daimah it is stated:

“We are not aware of any argument from the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam which shows that he named the entire Chapters. However, there are several shahih hadiths that mention the names of some Chapters from the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, such as al-Baqarah, or Ali Imran. While the names of the other Chapters, which are closer, it is from the companions of radhiyallahu ‘anhum.” (Fatawa Lajnah Daimah, 4/16).

This second opinion is strongly considered by Dr. Munirah ad-Dausiri in his treatise entitled Asma Suwar al-Quran al-Karim wa Fadhailuha (Names of Chapters in the Quran and their virtues). (Islamic Fatwa, no. 131664).

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